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THOMAS EDWIN f AM8H,
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\ii z i^ ^ u . \
THOS. EDWIN FAEI8H,
THX FQiUK BB0THKB8 ELIOnOTTFl CcniFANl
TYTOaKAPHKU AKD Btebiotzpiu
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LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS.
' Gov. A. P. K. SArFORD FrontispieM.
-A. F. BiNTA Facing Page 81
'C. E. CooLET Faeiitg Pago 76
'Qene&u. Ogome Stoneuan f^dog Pag« H
- OoL. JAMEE M. Basnet Faeiog Page 3M
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dwrka D. Postoii first Bupermteudent of IndUn ABtli^^
Saaeeeded by Qeorge W. Leihj — Leihy Sac«eeded b; Qoorge
W. Dent — I>Bat Bneeeeded faj Oeorge L. Andrewj — Andrews
SaecMded by H. BendeO — Office Aboliahed — Pinu vid
Uuieopft BweiTBtion Set Aude — Tama Beaervation Eitab-
lialied — Oolontdo Biver Beservation GstabUabed — ConditioiM
on NaTmho Beserration — Mtxjui Beeervation Eatablialwd —
BeMTTMioB, bat Betani U> Homee — Temtory B«t Apart for
Tbem — Oatbreak of Wallapais Cheeked Singlebanded bj
Captain Thomai Bjime — Temporary Beaerration for Apaeke-
UohaTe* Eatabliahed at Camp Date Creek — CrookedneM
of Indian Bing — Temporary Beeervation Eatabliahed on the
Verde — Indiana Bemoved from Verde to San Carloa —
Ckirleakna Beaerration EatablUhed — Oatbreak of Chiri-
eahaaft-^BeaerrationH EstabUshed at Gampe McDowell, Qrant
and Fort Apaehe — San Carloi Beoervation Eatabliahed —
Salariw of Official*— Bipenditnie of Ooyeniment for Indiau
— Cenaufl of Indiana in Ariiona in 1863 — Location of Differ-
ent Tribea — Ctamoringi for War of Extermination — General
Ord Takea Command of Department of Aricona
KZntlMTIONS A0UM8T INDUNS.
Nnmber of Wkitea Killed by Indiana — Inereaae of Uilitary— ^
Nnmber of Indiana Killed and Chptored by Hilitaiy —
King Woobey'a Aeeonnt of Ueatenant MeCIeaTe'a Seont-
Fight at Harqaa Hala Springa — Colonel Bamard'i TigtX
With Apaebei Under Cochue
KznvrnoNS into ikdian ooontbt.
Banlv'B DiaeoTeiT of "Meteoric Crater" — Banta, Cooley and
Dodd OrganiM Expedition to Hunt "Doc Thorn Minea" —
Banks of Little Colorado Used a« Nentr&l Qroand by Indiana
for Trading ParpOMB— Arrival of Expedition in Apaeheland
— Objection of Knala to PVogress of E^tedition — Expedition
Betreate — Approach of the Military — Feats of Indian Foot
Bnnneri — OTganication of Peace Party to Talk With Mili-
tary—Peace Party Arrested by Military— Belease of Peae«
Party — Military Oflleers Entertained by Apaehea
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KXPEMTIONS IMTD INDIAN OOUNTKT (Oontmued). PAOS
Captain Barry Ordered bj Colonel Oreen to Maasaere Indians—
Captain Barry Diaobe^B Orders and is Placed Under Ar-
rest — Big Dance of the Finals — "Dodd'a Dance —Beception
by the ToDtoH — Arrival at Camp Beno — Intercede With Oon-
eral Devin for Captain Barry-~Captain Bairy Beleased and
BetuTited to Duty — Disbandment of Expedition — Descrip-
tion of C. E. Cooley, His Banch and His Squaws 53
Beport of Major-Qeneral George H. Thomas on Uilitary Affairs
in Aritona — Beport of General Oxd — General Ord'B Aeeonnt
of Chptsin Bury'i Disobedience of Orders — Ekpense of
Supplying Rations to Troops in Aricona — Fourteen Milit&ry
Posts in Arizona — Desertion of Troops — Policy of Exter-
mination Followed by Both Military and Citisena — Condi-
tions in 1859 Deserit>ed by Banta — Batablisbment of Camp
Ord, Later Known as Port Apache
THE illUTAST (Continned).
Oeoeral George Shmeman Takes Command — Eia Policy — The
Experience With Indians — Attacks on Wagon Trains —
Appointment of A. P. K. SafFord as Gorernor of the Terri-
tory — His Interview With the "New York Herald"— Asks
That Arizona be Allowed to Raise Volunteers — Oovemiuent
Fnmishee Arms and Ammunition for Citisen Militia — How
the Apaches Secured Anna and Ammunitiou — Aetivitiee of
Military — XJeut.-Colonel Sanford's E!ipediti on— Lieutenant
CNiahing'e Expedition — Lieutenant Graham's Expedition —
Captain William Dry's Expedition M
OCTUaCS BY INDUHB.
Miner Editorial DescribiDg Trip Through Indian Country —
Interriewa Between General Stoneman and ludiaos — Miner
Prints Petition to President With List of Three Hundred
and One Persons Killed by Indians in Seven Tears 1
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ODTK&OEs BT INDIANS (Coutinned) . paqi
Q«v«Tiu>r SaSord'B Ueasage Calls Attention to OotragM— Public
Bentimeiit in Beference to Csjnp Orajit MsBsaere — Militarj
Aoeount of Camp Orant Massacre — Trial of FarticipaatB —
Charge of Judge Titus—DefeudBiits Acquitted — ^More Out-
rages by Indians — Lieutenant Cusiiiiig'e Expedition Against
Hmitilea — Killing of Lieutenant Cuahing ISl
CmZEN ■XFEDITIOHB AQAIN&T HOSTILX8.
C. B. Geuong'B Deaeription of Townaend'g Expedition — Indian*
Sill Herder and Steal Herbert Bowers' Cattle— John Town-
aend Appointed Captain of Pursuing Party — Joined by
Party of Soldiers Under Lieutenant Morton — Cat«h Indiims
aod Kill Thirty-flve — Best of Indiana Escape — Agson Catch
and KiU Indians — Porsners Retam to PMsoott and are
Banquetted — Flity-six Indians Killed, and Almoat All
Stock Becovered 170
INDIAN TSOUBUS, THE MIUTAKT, UUBDUS AND LYNOHINGa.
CaUfomia Legislstttre Passee Beeolution fielating t« Indian
Affairs in Arison* — Oeneral Stunemau Superseded by Gen-
eral Crook — Newspaper Criticism of Oeneral Stoneman —
Murders by Mexican Outlaws — Beprisala — Murderers
Lynched — Settlement of Valley of San Pedro by Mark
Aldrich — More Indian Outrages — Boada Built by Stone-
man — f^htS of Captain Moore and Captain BosseU With
Indians — General Crook Takes Command 196
TBX PEACK COUUISSION.
Ooveraor Safford's Proclamation in Begard to — Arrival of Com-
missioner Vincent Colyer — Makes Ex parte Beport — Beeeived
With Cordiality by Military but not by Citixens to Whom He
Befnsed Hearings — Colyer'a Letters Beporting His Actions —
Camp Apaehe — Industry of Apach,eB— Condition of Apache
Indiana — Befeience to Camp Grant Massacre — Talks With
Coyotero Apache CSiiefs 210
THE PKAoz coMiussiON (Continued).
Arrival at Camp Grant — Befusal to Allow Armed Citizens to
Cross Beservation — Apache Children Taken Into Captivity —
Interview With Apache Chiefs at Camp Grant— Talk With
£s-<Sm-En'Zeen, Head Chief- of Aravaipa Finals — Opposi-
tion to the Indian Peace Policy 230
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THM mem QOMioBBiON (Continued). pmi
The Frontienmui'B 87inpaUi7 With the Peace Policy— OUa Bim
A(«ns7 — Tonto Aps«hee at Camp UeDoweU — Beport of
J. H. StoDt, Special Indian Agent — Beport of Colonel
N. A. H. DadlOT— Beport of Capt&in Jamea Curtia — Taft
Wth Da-Chay-Ta and Shelter Pau — Beport of Captain
Netterrille— Beport of Colonel Dadlej 24T
TBM FKifX OOUUlBBlos (Continued).
Chmp Tcrde Beaervation — The Apaehe-MohaTea — Beport of
Ber. David Whit«, Poat Chaplain— Arrivml at Oarqi Whip-
plo, Oeneral Crook's Headquarters — Bcfnaal to Address
Meeting of Citiiens — Departure from Territorj — Final
Statement a* to Apaches Doming in 279
Tai wicEENBUBo lusaAca^
Stagecoach Attacked fa; Paxtr of Hoonted Uen, I^ve Passengers
Killed, Tiro Wonoded — Difference of Opinion as to Whether
Outrage Committed hj Indians or Mexicans — YcTdict of
Comner's Jury — Description of Killed and Wonnded — C. B.
Q«niiDg'B Belief and Statement — Mike Burns' Ignorance of
TBx wiOKXNBima uassackb (Continued).
Oeneral Crook Takes up Hunt for Murderers — Inveatigation
Stopped b7^ Peace Commission — Invmtigation hj Qenml
Crook Besnmed — Meeting With Indians at Camp Date
Creek — Selection of Murderers hj Mohave Indians — At-
tempted Arrest Brings on Fight— ~C. B. Oenung's Account
of Happening — Captain John G. Bourke's Account of At-
tempt OB Oeneral (book's Life — Death and Burial of Captain
Philip Dwyer — Ught With Indiana 30)
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HISTOET OF ABIZONA.
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HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
Charles D. Poston, First Superintendent of
Indian Affairs-— Sttcceeded by George W.
Leihy — Leihy Succeeded by George W.
Dent — Dent Succeeded by George L. An-
drews — ^Andrews Succeeded by H. Ben-
dell — Office Abolished — Pima and Mari-
copa Bbbervation Set Aside — Yuma
Reservation Established — Colorado River
Reservation Established — Conditions on
Navaho Reservation — Moqui Reservation
Established — Mohave Reservation Es-
tablished— -Wallapais Placed on Reser-
vation, but Return to Homes — Territory
Set Apart for Them — Outbreak of
Wallapais Ohbckm> Sinolehanded by
Captain Thomas Byrne — Temporary Res-
ervation for Apache-Mohaves Estab-
LiSHH) at Camp Date Creek — ORooKEav
NESS OF Indian Ring — Temporary Reser-
vation Established on the Verde —
Indians Removed from Verde to San
Carlos — Chiricahua Reservation Estab-
lished — Outbreak of Chiricahuas — Res-
ervations Estarushed at Camps Mc-
Dowell, Grant, and Port Apache — San
Carlos Reservation Established — Sala-
vm— 1 (1)
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2 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
RiES OP Officials — Expenditure of Gov-
ernment FOR Indians — Census of Induns
IN Arizona in 1868 — Location op Differ-
ent Tribes — Clamorings for War of Ex-
termination — General Ord Takes Com-
mand of Department of Arizona.
One of the great drawbacks to the early set-
tlement of the Apache question was the author-
ity given to the Indian Agents upon the reser-
vations. The following is a brief review of the
establishment of these agencies from the forma-
tion of the Territory up to the year 1875.
Charles D. Poston was the first Superintendent
of Indian Affairs. As we have seen, he came
in by way of California, accompanied by J. Ross
Browne and some others, arriving at Eort Yuma
about Christmas time, 1863. There they dis-
tributed quite a nimaber of presents to Pasqual
and his band. The company then went on to Tuc-
son, and during the month of January, 1864,
Poston and Browne made a tour into Sonora and
back. Poston sent in his resignation with his re-
port when he was elected the first Delegate to
Congress from Arizona. George W. Leihy then
held the office until November, 1866, when he was
killed by the Indians. George W. Dent served
from 1867 to 1869, and was succeeded by George
L. Andrews, who held the office in 1869 and 1870,
and was in turn succeeded by H. Bendell, who
held it in 1871 and 1872, the office being abol-
ished in the latter year, the agents reporting
directly after that time to the Indian Commis-
sioners in Washington. The Government, how-
ever, sent out special inspectors occasionally to
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INDIAN AGENCIES. 3
visit the agencies. Prior to Poston's appoint-
ment and the organization of the Territory, an
agent at Mesilla, New Mexico, had a merely
nominal control of the Arizona Indians.
In February, 1859, the Government caused a
reservation to be set apart on the Gila for the
Pimas and Maricopas, tMs having been the
home of the Fimas for centuries. This reser-
vation embraced all the lands which they had
under cultivation at the time of the acquisition
of Arizona. The survey was made by Colonel
A. B. Gray, and embraced one hundred square
leagues of arable lands, most of it susceptible
of irrigation. The length of the reservation is
about twenty-five miles, and its breadth about
four miles, and the Gila river runs through
it from one end to the other. They had a
good many horses and cattle. In 1858, the first
year of the Overland Mail Line, their surplus
of wheat was one himdred thousand pounds,
which was purchased by the stage line. In 1859
Mr. St. John was sent among them as a special
agent, with a supply of Indian trinkets and
agricultural implements. That year they sold
two hundred and fifty thousand pounds of
wheat and a large quantity of melons, pump-
kins and beans. (Browne, "Apache Coimtry,"
Pish, in his manuscript, says: "The produc-
tion of grain and trade increased each year,
and in 1866 they sold wheat and com amount-
ing to about two millions of pounds, besides a
large amoimt of barley, beans, etc. The most
of this was bought by Indian traders, located
at Maricopa Wells and the Pima Villages, at
4 HISTORT OF ARIZONA.
from one to two cents per pound, trade, and
then resold to the Government for the use of
troops in Arizona at from six to seven cents per
pound, cash. This is a specimen of the way in
which the old Indian ring fleeced both the
Indians and the Government."
The Pima agents were A. M. White to 1866;
Levi Ruggles in 1866, 1867, 1868 and 1869, with
C. H. Lord as Deputy in 1867; F. E. Grassman
in 1869 and 1870; J. H. Stout in 1871, 1872,
1873, 1874 and 1875.
A reservation for tiie Yumas was set apart
in 1863 on the California side of the Colorado
at Fort Yuma. This reservation extended for
twenty-five miles along the river and to the west
as far as the foothills. In 1864 Francis Hin-
ton was employed by Superintendent Poston as
agent for the Yumas. After the occupation of
Fort Yuma by the United States troops, the
Yumas were held in check, but the power and
glory of this nation has departed.
Mr. Poston, when in Congress, as we have
heretofore stated, succeeded in getting an
appropriation of a htmdred thousand dollars
for colonizing the friendly Indians in Arizona
on a reservation on the Colorado river. In
1864 he selected a reservation on the Colorado
river bottom at Half Way Bend, in latitude 34°
IC, which extended from a point four miles
above Ehrenberg some forty-five miles up the
river. Here comfortable adobe buildings were
constructed after 1867. These lands were set
apart by Congress in an act approved March
3rd, 1865, and consisted of a hundred and
twenty-eight thousand acres, bordering on the
INDIAN AGENCIES. D
river and conuneQcing between Mirenberg and
La Paz. From 1864 to 1866, they were in charge
of Herman Ehrenberg; from 1866 to 1869 John
Fudge was the agent; Helenas Dodt in 1870;
J. A. Tanner from 1871 to 1875.
During the Navaho war in New Mexico in
1862 and 1868, as we have seen, the Navahos
were placed on the Pecos reservation in that
Territoiy. The Coyotero (White Mountain)
Apaches, seeing how the Navahos had been
vanquished, were easily placed upon a reserva-
tion, but discontent was soon manifested among
them, and when the California Volunteers were
withdrawn, they ran away. "In May, 1868,"
says Pish, "General Sherman and Colonel Top-
pan, peace commissioners, visited New Mexico,
and arranged to remove the Navahos from the
Pecos to their old home near Fort Defiance.
By treaty of June 1st, 1868, their reservation
was located in the northeast comer of Arizona,
and adjacent parts of New Mexico. It com-
prised an area of fifty-two hundred square
miles. Some important additions were c^ter-
wards made to it on October 29th, 1878, and
January 6th, 1880, making it the hu^gest reser-
vation in the United States. The agent at the
Navaho reservation in 1878 said: 'Within ten
years, during which tiie present treaty with the
Navahos has been in force, they have grown
from a band of paupers to a nation of prosper-
ous, iudustrious, shrewd, and (for barbarians)
intelligent, people.'" They were reported at
that time to be eleven thousand, eight hundred
in nmnber, and the owners of twenty thousand
horses, fifteen himdred cattle, and five hundred
6 HISTORT OF ARIZONA.
thousand sheep. They were tilling nine thou-
sand one hundred and ninety-two acres of land,
and obtaining ninely-five per cent of their sub-
sistence from civilized pursuits. Their march
of improvement was not halted, for in 1884,
the Navaho tribe was estimated at seventeen
thousand, they cultivated fifteen thousand acres
of land, and raised two hundred and twenty
thousand bushels of com and twenty-one thou-
sand bushels of wheat, and had thirty-five thou-
sand horses and one million sheep.
In December, 1882, a reservation for the
Moqui Indians was established west and south
of tiie Navaho reservation. Some changes in
the boundaries of their reservation have since
The Mohave reservation was set apart on
March 30th, 1870, the area being fifty-five hun-
dred and seventy-two acres. The Indians liv-
ing along the river bottom gleaned a precarious
living from what they could raise, from the
native products of the country, and what they
could beg at the post. This reservation of the
Mohave Indians herein noted, must not be con-
founded with that of the Apache-Mohavea. As
will be hereafter shown, they were two differ-
ent tribes, the Apaehe-Mohaves being an off-
shoot of the Mohaves, but of a more warlike
The Mohaves, however, complained, and quite
justly, that the Government failed to fumi^
them implements, tools, seed, etc., to enable
them to work their lands and support them-
selves, and here it can be stated, and very truly,
that the Indian Department always neglected
INDIAN AGENCIES. 7
the friendly Indiana, while to the hostiles it
made presents under the plea of pacifying
them. In 1876 there were about nine hundred
of these Indians living on the Colorado reser-
vation, and there were about six himdred living
from Fort Mohave to the Needles, all of them
self-supporting. This reservation was origi-
nally intended for all the river tribes, also tiie
WaUapais and the Yavapaia, but only a portion
of the Mohaves and some others could ever be
induced to occupy it permanently. They had
to depend on the annual overflow of the river
for irrigation, which often failed and resulted
in a failure of their crops. Beginning in the
year 1867 and ending in the year 1874, a canal,
nine miles long was dug, which cost twenty-
eight thousand dollars, but which proved to be
a failure. The Indians took great interest in
it, and also in a system of waterwheels, which
also proved a failure, and did considerable
work. A portion of the Mohaves lived near
Fort Mohave and fared very well, but those
that are left seem to retain all the vices of
border railroad and mining towns, and are ad-
dicted to gambling and drinking. They have
degenerated fearfully and are a hopelessly
wretched and deplorable race, tainted with
syphilitic diseases. The Colorado river reser-
vation seems to have been rather a poor one for
agricultural purposes, and the Indians realized
very little for their labor. The Oovemmeut
issued rations to them to help tiiem out, fur-
nishing them about (me-third of their support.
The balance they secured from the fruits of
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8 HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA.
their labor and the natural products of the
The Wallapais lived in the mountains east
of Mohave. They were a brave and warlike
people, and were continually at war with the
whites. After their submission they did good
service against the Apaches. In 1871 Vincent
Colyer established a reservation at Beale
Springs, where they were gathered. In 1874
they were moved to the Colorado reservation,
and placed with the Mohaves, much against
their will. The heat of the river bottom did
not agree with them, and the debauched condi-
tion of the Mohaves was a source of annoyance,
as well as an example to the women and young
men that would soon destroy the sacred mar-
riage relations in their own tribe. In vain
they pleaded to be allowed to return to their
own mountain home. They pleaded their ser-
vices in helping the whites to conquer hos-
tiles and promised, if allowed to go back, to
become self-supporting. Not obtaining per-
mission, they left in a body, and, on reaching
their home, they raised the white flag and pro-
tested that they had come back to live in peace,
so they were given a chance and they lived up
to their promises. A tract of two thousand
square miles on the Grand Canyon bend of the
Colorado river was set apart for them in 1881
and 1883, where they now live. They have
greatly degenerated, however, and are consid-
ered a destitute and vicious lot of beggars.
The Beale Springs reservation was abolished
by General Howard in 1872. While the Walla-
pais were at Beale Springs, they were under the
INDIAN AGENCIES. 9
care a part of the time of Captain Thomas
Byrne, Twelfth Infantry, who was a genius in
his way. "Old Tommy," as he was affection-
ately called, was a great friend to the Indians
and succeeded by his straightforward and
kindly ways in gaining their confidence. After
he was suspended by the acting agent, he re-
mained at the agency, regarded by all the tribe
as their brother and adviser. The Wallapais
took some offense at the new agent and sud-
denly left the reservation to go on the warpath.
"Old Tonuny'* knowing how much it would cost
Uncle Sam in blood and treasure if the out-
break was not stopped, mounted a horse and fol-
lowed the Indians, and succeeded in getting
them to return, promising them that their
wrongs would be righted. The following ac-
count of what happened is given in Bourke, "On
the Border with Crook," p. 163 :
"Back they went, following after the one im-
armed man. Straight to the beef scales went
the now thoroughly aroused officer, and in less
time than it takes to relate, he had detected the
manner in which false weights had been secured
by a tampering with the poise. A two year old
Texas steer which, horns and all, would not
weigh eight hundred pounds, would mark sev-
enteen hundred, and other things in the same
ratio. Nearly the whole amount of the salt and
flour supply had been sold to the miners in the
Cerbat range, and the poor Hualpais, who bad
been such valiant and efficient allies, had been
swindled out of everything but their breath, and
but a small part of that was left.
10 HISTORT OF ARIZONA.
"Tommy seized upon the agency and took
charge; the Hualpais were perfectly satisfied,
but the agent left that ni^t for California, and
never came back. A great hub-bub was raised
about the matter, but nothing came of it, and
a bitter war was averted by the prompt, decisive
action of a plain, unlettered officer, who had no
ideas about managing savages beyond treating
them with kindness and justice."
In 1871 Colyer established a temporary res-
ervation at Date Creek. About two himdred
Mid twenty-five Indians, mostly Apache-Mo-
haves, had been gathered in here prior to this
date, and allowed to roam and get a living by
hunting or as best they could. In June, 1871,
the Government commenced to issue rations
from this agency to the Indians in this part of
the Territory. They were, however, trans-
ferred to the Camp Verde reservation in May,
1873, and moved from the Verde in March,
1875. Previous to being put upon the reserva-
tion they were in open hostility with the whites,
committing most of their depredations around
Wickenburg and vicinity. Lieutenant F. H. E.
Ebstein had charge of fiie Date Creek Agency,
and was superseded in July, 1872, when Gen-
eral O. 0. Howard abolished the reservation,
or feeding station as it was sarcastically called.
When the transfer was made, Williams became
agent at the Verde.
"About this time," says Fish, "the 'Indian
Ring' began to get in their work, and they were
remarkably successful in tiie manipulation of
contracts, etc. While Dr. Williams was in
charge of the Apaehe-Yumas and Apache-
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INDIAN AQENCIE8. 11
Mohaves, he had refused to receive certain
sugar on account of the presence of great rocks
in each sack. Peremptory orders for the im-
mediate receipt of the sugar were received in
due time from Washington. Williams placed
one of these immense lumps of stone on a table
in his office, labelled 'Sample of sugar received
at this agency under contract of .' Will-
iams was an honest, high-minded gentleman,
and deserved something better than to be
hounded into an insane asylum, which fate he
suffered. Williams was not the only agent who
went to an insane asylum. Colonel J. Roe
Young who, at one time, was Indian agent at
Sacaton, died in a Kentucky Insane Asylum not
many years ago."
The Indians got but little of what was appro-
priated for them. It was notoriously the fact,
and a standing joke in this coimtry was, "Do
Indian Agents Steal!" No one ever heard of
an agent being pxmished. General Crook
stated that there never was a person pimished
in Arizona for defrauding the Indians. The
more docile the Indians were, the more abuse
they got. When they became self-supporting,
like tiie Navahos, the Government gave them
nothing. If they were deadly and murderous
like the Apaches, the Government took care of
them and fed them. Issuing rations was the
proper thing when we had destroyed the native
means of subsistence, but the tribe that worked
and helped itself should have been aided fur-
ther toward civilization in other ways. "A few
years ago," says Fish, "the Government erected
fifty cottages for the Wallapais near Kingman,
12 HMTOBT OF ARIZONA.
and furnished them with stoves, etc. Through
the custom of burning the effects of the war-
riors who die, few of Siese cottages remain."
In 1871 Colyer established a temporary res-
ervation at the Verde, this being on the dividing
line between the Apaches proper and the Yava-
pais, quite central, and one with which the
Indians were well satisfied. After the sur-
render of Chalipun, in 1873, at Camp Verde,
there was no time lost in putting them to work.
Colonel Julius W. Mason superintended the
getting out of an irrigating ditch, and Walter
S. Schuyler had the immediate charge of the
Indians. The reservation was established some
miles above the post. There were few tools, but
they were strung along the line of the ditch, and
every tool that could be, was secured. There
were a few old tools of different kinds at
Fort Whipple, which were sent down, and the
best possible use made of them. With these
and with sticks hardened in the fire, the Apaches
soon had a ditch completed five miles long,
with a width of four feet, and three feet
deep. Mason and Schuyler labored assidu-
ously with the Apaches, and soon had about
fifty-seven acres of land planted with melons
and other garden truck, of which the Indians
are very fond, and preparations for planting
com and barley on a large scale were made.
The prospects of the Apaches looked bright,
and there began to be hope that they would soon
become self-sustaining, but it was not to be.
The "ring" of Federal oflScials, contractors and
others, succeeded in securing the issue of per-
emptory orders that the Apaches should leave
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INDIAN AGENCIES. 13
at once for the mouth of the sickly San Carlos,
there to be herded with the other tribes. The
Apaches were contented on the Verde and satis-
fied with their surroundings there. They had
been promised that it should be their home, and
to remove them was bad faith, particularly as
their work was beginning to show results, and
they had every prospect of becoming self-
supporting. The move did not take place until
the following winter, when the Indians flatly
refused to follow the special agent sent out by the
Indian Bureau, not being acquainted with him,
but did consent to go with Lieutenant Geo. 0.
Eaton. There were two thousand of these
Indians in 1879, and in August of that year
about nine hxmdred of them ran away, but
four hundred of them returned in September.
W. S. Schuyler succeeded Dr. WilUams as
agent. The place proved to be unhealthy and
there was much sickness at the agency, which
caused it to be changed somewhat. 3ji 1874
there were a thousand and seventy-eight
Indians at the place, and by June the soldiers
had brought in more, increasing the number to
fifteen hundred and forty-four. These Indians
were removed, not only against their will, but
also against the protest of General Crook. Re-
ferring to the removal of the Indians, Dunn,
in his "Massacres of the Mountains," says:
"To the statement of the commissioner of
Indian Affairs: 'I believe now no one in the
Territory questions the wisdom of the removal
of the Verde Indians', Colonel Kautz bluntly
replied : ' So far as my observation goes, I have
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14 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
seen no one who endorses it, except those con-
nected with the Indian Department.' "
This removal was in March, 1875, and was in
charge of Special Commissioner Dudley. On
the way to the San Carlos reservation, the Ton-
tos and Tavapais had a fight among themselves,
in which five were killed.
The placing of the Indians on the Verde was
in accordance with General Crook's arrange-
ment with them when they surrendered, he
then promising them that they should stay there
as long as they were peaceable and good
Indians. The removal of them to San Carlos
was opposed by Crook, and had a bad efEect on
the Indians, as it seemed to them that Crook
had failed to keep his promises, and tbe result
was that, to a certain extent, they lost faith in
the general, and in all promises made by the
The Chiricahua reservation was established
in October, 1872, by General O. O. Howard, on
the conclusion of his treaty with Cochise,
Prior to this time all attempts to induce this
tribe to leave its old home had resulted in
failure. In pursuance of this treaty Cochise
ceased hostilities, and used his influence with
such effect that in October and November, over
a thousand Apaches had gathered upon this
reservation, not only the Chiricahua Apaches,
but also some of the Mesealeros, who were
closely affiliated with them. The reservation
included approximately that portion of Cochise
county lying east of the Dragoon moimtains.
Its southern boundary was the international
line between the United States and the Mexi-
INDIAN AOENCIES. 15
can Republic. It was set apart by executive
order of December 14th, and by the end of the
year over a thousand Jjidians were being fed,
according to the report of the agent, Thomas
J. Jeffords. In setting apart this reservation,
it was found that Rogers and Spence had a
claim on Sulphur Springs, having located there
in 1868. To settle this claim Rogers was given
a hundred and sixty acres of land on the res-
ervation, where he remained, keeping a trading
post The agency was at Sulphur Springs,
Oienega de San Simon, Pinery Canyon and
Apache Pass, successively. Cochise remained
faithful to the time of his death in 1874, and
was succeeded by his son, Taza, although
neither had full control of all the bands. There
were no farming lands, but the Chiricahuas
were not farmers and did not care to learn the
The r^ervation being on the Mexican border,
there was much raidii^ across the line, which
Agent Jeffords insisted was not done by his
Indians, but by those from San Carlos and
other points, a statement which was not gener-
ally credited by those outside of the reserva-
tion. Superintendent L. K. Dudley, of New
Mexico, endeavored to have the Chiricahuas re-
moved to the Hot Springs, but they refused to
go. In April, 1876, after the killing of Rogers
and Spence, which has been heretofore noted,
^e Indians, fearing punishment, fled to the
mountains of Mexico, and from ^at time on,
for six long years, the history of the Chirica-
huas was one of continual struggle, as will be
shown in future pages of this history. By the
16 HISTORT OP ARIZONA.
influence of Governor Safford, and against the
advice of General Kautz, then in command, the
removal of all the Indians was ordered. A
band of a hundred and forty went_ to Hot
Springs; three hundred and twenty-five, under
Taza, were sent to San Carlos in June, and
tiie remaining four hundred ran away to com-
mit depredations on the frontier. These last
figiu'es were according to Agent Jeffords. The
reservation was restored to the public domain
by executive order of October 30tii, 1876.
Vincent Colyer established a temporary res-
ervation at Gamp McDowell in 1871, but it
was abolished the following year by General
Howard. He also established reservations the
same year at Camp Grant and Fort Apache.
The establishment of the White Moimtain res-
ervation is dated November 9th, 1871. As all
these reservations were for the Apaches, they
were practically one after the move from Camp
Grant. In 1872 General Howard changed the
Camp Grant reservation to the Gila, naming it
San Carlos. This reservation seems to have
extended to the New Mexico line.
The salaries of the officers for the San Carlos
reservation for the year 1884 were as follows:
Agent, $2,000; Storekeeper, $900; Physician,
$1,200; Clerk, $1,200; Chief Scout, $1,000; Head
Farmer, *900 ; Issue Clerk, $900 ; School
Teacher, $800; two School Teachers, $600;
Matron, $600 ; Seamstress, $600 ; Assistant
December 14th, 1872, the executive order
creating the reservation was supplemented by
several new orders; that of August 5th, 1873,
INDUN AGENCIES. 17
cut off all the Gila Valley above Old Camp
Goodwin; that of April 27th, 1876, cut off a
strip on the east ; that of January 28, 1877, cut
off a strip of seven thousand four hundred and
twenty-one acres in the northeast comer, and
that of March 31st, 1877, the southwest comer
south of the Gila. As left, the reservation con-
tained four thousand four hundred and forty
square miles. The agents were as follows : Ed.
C. Jacobs, Geoi^e H. Stevens, H. R. Wilbur,
C. F. Larrabee, W. H. Brown, J. K. Roberts,
and John P. Glum during the period from 1872
to 1876. H. L. Hari; was agent in 1877-78;
Adna R. Chaffee in 1879-80; J. C. Tiffany in
1880-51; PhU P. Wilcox in 1882-83, and G.
Ford in 1884. From 1882 the reservation be-
came practically under control of the military
In the early years of these reservations the
great objection on tiie" part of the Indians to
coming upon them and remaining, was the sys-
tem of "tagging," (Bourke, "On the Border
with Crook," p. 219,) which they regarded as
humiliating, and to which their proud spirits
could not submit This caused many of them
to leave the reservations, and yet it would seem
it was the only way of keeping them where the
agent could locate his Indians. The Apaches
were gradually disarmed, and the use of "tiz-
win," the native liquor, was suppressed. Ckie
cause of trouble and outbreaks was the putting
of strange and different tribes on the same res-
ervation, which caused the usual jealousies and
bickerings that always arise under these con-
Digitized By Google
18 HKTOBY OF ARIZONA.
The total expenditures of the government on
account of the Indian service, from 1789 to 1900,
amounts to more than three hundred and sixty-
eight millions of dollars. More money has been
paid to extinguish Indian land titles, than to
extinguish the titles of foreign nations, and the
cost of our Indian wars has been equal to the
cost of all our foreign wars.
In 1863 the number of Indians in Arizona
was estimated as follows:
Fimas & Maricopas 5,000
Apaches Man 100
The different tribes of Indians in the Terri-
tory were originally located as follows :
COLORADO RIVER AGENCY.
Mohaves at Mohave 677
Mohaves at Needles 667
Mohaves at Port Mohave 700
INDUN AGENCIES. 19
Moquis, (Pueblo) 2,029
Pimas, Gila Reservation 3,723
Maricopas, Salt River Reservation. . 93
Marlcopas, Gila Reservation 203
Pimas, Salt River Reservation 543
Papagos, Gila Bend Reservation 75
Papagos, Nomadic 1,800
Papagos, San Xavier 517
Papagos, Peerless Well 248
SAN CARLOS AGENCY:
Coyotero Apaches 612
Tonto Apaches 856
Mohave- Apaches 501
San Carlos Apaches 1,134
White Moxmtain Apaches 1,739
Yuma- Apaches 51
Havasupias, (imattached) 215
The foregoing figures are probably a little
under the real number in some instances.
According to the census of 1900 there were but
26,480 Indians in Arizona. There is some
omission in this, probably ; some of the Pueblo
tribes may not have been included.
From the date of the entry of the California
Colimm into Arizona, and for many years
thereafter, there was an element that was
opposed to any peace with the Apaches. Their
20 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA.
cry was extermination and, as we have seen,
General Carleton and many others adhered to
this policy. The civilians who gave out this
cry were those who were fattening on Govern-
ment contracts, holding lucrative positions in
many ways. They were merely sojourners in
Arizona. Her magnificent forests; her moun-
tains rich in gold, silver and copper; her val-
leys, productive as any known to man ; her hills
covered with nutritious grasses; this paradise
of the stockman, lumberman, farmer and miner,
did not attract them. The latent wealth of the
future commonwealth did not appeal to this
class, whose only desire was to gather quickly
the crumbs which leaked from the Federal feed
basket. Another, and by far a more numerous
class of the population were those who realized
the possibilities of the future, and desired to
build here their homes, the empire builders who
imperilled life and fortime in an effort to re-
claim the Territory from savagery to civiliza-
tion, but saw their neighbors murdered, their
homes pillaged, their stock stolen, and their
fields laid waste by a foe as ruthless and relent-
less as any that had ever cursed mankind.
Under these conditions all classes were clamor-
ing for a war of extermination. Agencies
and reservations were denounced as "feeding
stations and depots of supplies" for the hos-
tile Apaches, where they could recruit their
strength and form plans for new atrocities.
Throughout the country the newspapers re-
echoed the popular cry: "Do away with the
agencies; fight the Apaches to the death." The
Governor wid Legislature were in full sym-
INCUN AOENCIEa 21
pathy with the people in this popular outcry,
which had become common to every Arizonan,
for the feeling that now actuated all the citi-
zens of the Territory was one of bitter hatred
and revenge for their murdered friends and
relatives. War for aggrandizement or gain
was not thought of except by the few who com-
posed the ring which received Uncle Sam's
money in return for services rendered. The
people were crazy for blood; the spirit of re-
venge burned at fever heat, for during these
years, up to and including 1870, they could see
no progress, and became mscouraged and clam-
orous for reform. The troops were blamed,
and the officers declared unfit for their posi-
tions. In military circles there was a division
of opinion, inspectors and officers not always
agreeing as to tiie best policy to be pursued. It
was a time of excitement and exaggeration, of
unreasonable views and acts, and while the
Indians were responsible for many outrages,
the whites were guilty of many crimes against
the Indians. The spirit of revenge seemed to
have taken hold of all classes, depriving men of
their cooler judgment. The feeling of himaan
kindness which is said to be implanted in all
men, was smothered, and it was not to be won-
dered at. It is hard to be calm when one's rela-
tives and friends are being butchered, and this
applied as well to the Indian as to the white
In Jxme, 1869, Major General Thomas re-
lieved General Halleck in command of the Mili-
tary Division of the Pacific, and General Ord
succeeded to the command of the Department
22 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
of California, which included Arizona. **(3en-
eral Ord," says Fish, "was an enthusiastic ex-
terminator 80 far as the Apaches were con-
cerned." In Septemher, 1869, he wrote: "I
encourage the troops to capture and root out the
Apaches by every means, and to hunt them as
they would wild animals. This they have done
with unrelenting vigor. " General Halleck,
who preceded General Thomas in command of
the Military Division of the Pacific, said, as has
been heretofore stated: "It is useless to nego-
tiate with these Apache Indians. They will ob-
serve no treaties, agreements or truces. With
them there is no alternative but active and vig-
orous war till they are completely destroyed, or
forced to surrender as prisoners of war."
Soon after being placed in command of the
Department of Califomia, General Ord visited
Arizona, making a personal inspection of the
principal forts in tiie Territory, and laying
his plans for future operations. It does not
appear, however, that his visit resulted in much
good. He was a Civil War veteran, a graduate
of West Point, and a First Lieutenant in 1849
in the regular army, and, later, was a Major
General in the Civil War, where, through long
and distinguished services, he gained a place in
the history of our country during those trying
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EXPEDITIONS AOAINST INDIANS. 23
EXPEDITIONS AGAINST INDIANS.
NtruBER OP Whites Khxed by Indians — In-
crease OP Military — Nttmber op Indians
Killed and Captured by Militaby — Kino
Woolsey's Account of Lieutenant Mc-
Ci;eave's Scout — Fight at Habqua Hala
SpRiNfls — Colonel Barnard's Fight With
Apaches Under Cochise.
General Devin's report for 1868 shows that
in the Northern District, in forty-six expedi-
tions, one hundred and forty-six Indians had
been killed, sixty-one wounded, and thirty-five
captured. In the south little had been done dur-
ing that time. Several new posts were estab-
liEibed and much work was done at the forts.
The force this year was two regiments of in-
fantry, and nine of cavalry. In Pima County
for the year ending July 17th, 1869, fifty-two
whites were killed and eighteen wounded by
Apaches. In the next year forty-seven were
killed and six wounded, besides destruction of
property in every part of the Territory.
Hardly a freighter, stockman, or farmer, that
did not suffer from Indian raids.
The "Prescott Miner," of March €th, 1869,
contains the following item :
' ' Indians continuing depredations aroimd
Prescott and all the adjacent towns, killing
citizens and running off stock."
This paper, on the same date, notes the suc-
cession of General Ord in command of the De-
24 HISTORY OP ABIZONA.
partment of California, and says: "The num-
ber of companies in Arizona is increased to
thirty-six, which will be re-enforced by eight
companies to be forwarded as soon as possible.
The number of troops when the re-enforce-
ments arrive, will be about eighteen hundred.
The operation of the troops during the last
quarter in Northern Arizona has been of con-
siderable interest. The scouts of General Alex-
ander, Colonel Price, Major Clendenin, and
Lieutenants Hasson, Sommerbee and Wells, re-
sulted in the capture of numerous Indians and
the killing of sixty-four, and the destruction
of the Tillages and property of several warlike
parties of Indians who have been committing
outrages and killing the settlers in the Terri-
tory. The war parties of Indians are mostly
roving Apaches, some of them being f roin the
hostile branch of the Hualapai tribe."
In a letter dated from the Vulture Mine,
July 12th, 1869, King Woolsey gives an account
of the scout of Lieutenant Wm, MeCleave of
the 8th U. S. Cavalry, a description of which
has been given in Voliune 3 of this History as
related by William Fourr. The following is
King Woolsey 's report:
"On July 6th they arrived at Harqua Hala
Springs. An Indian appeared on a high point
overlooking our camp, waved his gun high in
the air, and soimded the warwhoop, all of which
was a signal of battle. Then opened one of the
most terrific Indian fights I have ever had the
pleasure of witnessing.
"After the first half hour it was plain that
we could drive them at will, but the ^old man,*
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EXPEDITIONS AOAmffT INDIANS. 25
as the boys called McGleave, thought it best to
keep them close to us until we wanted to retire
to the plain below. Our men fought Indian
fashion, every man from behind a rock. Had
they been exposed they would not have lasted
ten minutes. At six o'clock orders were given
to saddle and pack up. The Indians saw the
move and rushed furiously to the charge. It
was a dear charge for them, and during the few
minutes it lasted, we hurt more Indians than
we had in the previous two hours fighting.
Numbers fell and were dragged back to the
rocks, and three lay dead in full view. We had
one man wounded severely in the head. "We
forced a passage to the plain below, and camped
for the night. At daylight the cliffs at the en-
trance of the canyon and below the water were
black with the red devils, apparently busily for-
tifying. Knowing that we were compelled to
have water, they were using every exertion to
prevent us from getting it. At eight o'clock
A M., after having graaed our horses and break-
fasted, orders were given to pack, saddle, and
fall in. After detailing a rear guard, and every
fourth man to hold or lead horses, we only had
thirteen soldiers and two citizens to face the
enemy ; this small band was drawn up in a line
and, after a few stirring words from our Gen-
eral, we deployed on foot. The Apaches wel-
comed us with loud shouts, waving bright lances
and guns in the morning sxm. They had evi-
dently been reinforced during the night and,
being now well fortified, were eager for the con-
test. We marched directly toward the fortified
hill until within five hunti-ed yards of it. We
26 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
diverged to the right, crossing the canyon and
gaining the high ground on the north. This
move was executed in full view of the enemy,
who appeared to be completely stupefied. As
soon as we faced about and bore down .toward
the water, they sullenly left their fort, hurried
around, and crawled into the rocks overhanging
the water. As they were shifting from the for-
tification, we had an opportimity of approxi-
mating their nimiber, and I think that at least
sixty left the hill and passed into the rocks,
where also were others. Our train was halted
within four hundred yards of the water, and we
were ordered to advance. Our advance was a
succession of charges or rushes from one cluster
of rocks to another, one half of our force cov-
ering while the other half charged. In about
one hour the water was cleared, and about one-
half of our fighting force had crossed the canyon
and occupied the rocks lately in p(»session of
"The train and horses were now ordered to
the water. The Indians rallied and made a des-
perate attempt to regain their lost ground, but
tailed, losing one of their chiefs, quite a number
of their warriors, and leaving us masters of the
field. Thus ended two of the hardest contested
Indian fights I have ever witnessed. I think
they outnumbered us the last day at least five
to one. The fighting was almost entirely done
by the soldiers as, besides myself, there was but
one citizen, William Fourr, in the fight. Our
leader proved himself worthy the great reputa-
tion he bears. He was everywhere, and always
at the right place. ' '
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EXPEDITIONS AGAINST INDIANS. 27
On August 14th, 1869, General Devin trans-
ferred his headquarters to Tucson. The "Miner"
of October 30th, 1869, prints a letter under date
of October 13th, 1869, from Tucson, giving an
account of Indian depredations in that locality,
and especially one in whidi the band was headed
by Cochise. The last paragraph of this letter
is as follows :
"Colonel Barnard has . now two companies
under his command, with orders to follow Co-
chise's trail by day and night, wherever it may
In the "Miner" of December 12th, 1869, is the
report of Colonel P. F. Barnard of his fight with
the Apaches imder Cochise :
"On the 16th of October Colonel Barnard
started from Camp Bowie with sixty-one men
and fifteen days' rations, marching entirely by
night, which rendered it difficult to follow the
trail of the Indians. On the 20th he came upon
a camp which appeared to have been deserted
but a day or so, where he halted the command,
not being able to see the trail. The Colonel
galloped into a canyon, while the guide with five
men climbed toward a rocky mesa. The Colonel,
looking back to, see how the men were getting
up the bill, saw several Indians running for the
crest. He got back as quick as his horse would
carry him, and ordered his men to tie their
horses to the trees and get to tiie tops of the hills
as quickly as possible, leaving six men with
the horses. Before the men had reached half
way up the hUl, the Indians had opened fire
on the guide and the five men with him, com-
pelling them to take shelter behind rocks. At this,
28 HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA.
firing commenced at all parts of the rocks above
us. The troops were placed about thirty yards
from the ledge occupied by the Indians, which
enabled them to shoot arrows at any person
who might show himself. Here two men were
killed and one wounded. The men then made
themselves secure behind the rocks, and the
sharp-shooting commenced in earnest and was
kept up for a half hour, when the Colonel gave
the command of the troops occupying the rocks
to Lieutenant Lafferty, while he disposed of the
rear guard and pack train which was just com-
ing in. When the Colonel reached the place
where he had left the horses, he found that they
were greatly exposed to the enemy's fire, and,
it being impossible, to advance, Lieutenant Laf-
ferty was ordered to fall back and bring the
dead with him, which he was unable to do. One
man in coming down the hill, fell over the rocks
and broke his leg. The animals were then re-
moved to a place of safety, leaving the Lieuten-
ant and a few men to protect the dead bodies
until something could be done to drive the In-
dians from the rocks. The Colonel with twenty
men moved to the left in hopes of being able to
get in the rear of the enemy, but found every
point on the mesa well guarded, and as he got
within gunshot, they would open fire upon him.
He then took thirty men and went to ttie right,
determined to get to the top of the mesa if pos-
sible. This movement was made around a hill
so that the Indians could not see him until he
reached the place that he intended to charge
from, where he foimd a deep canyon that he
had ti) lead his horses down and up before reach-
EXFEDITIONS AOAINST INDIANS. 29
ing the top of the mesa. He had not more than
made his appearance here until they commenced
firing upon him. He then gave his first sergeant
fifteen men, with orders to occupy the hill near-
est the mesa and try to make the Indians leave
their stronghold near the dead men. This fire
had great effect on them as several men were
killed from this point. He again returned to
the place where the animals were left and gave
Captain Adams all the men he could spare,
witii orders to report to Lieutenant Lafferty
to make a charge and get the bodies of the dead
men. Just as Captain Adams arrived and was
about to report to Lieutenant Laflferty, he, Lieu-
tenant Lafferty, was shot, the ball taking effect
in the cheek, breaking and carrying away the
greater portion of the lower jaw, the bullet and
broken bones greatly lacerating his face. Suc-
cess was now made a toss, and there being no
place where the command could camp in this
vicinity out of gunshot range of the hill, besides
which the whole country being thickly settled
with timber, night appeared very dark, as it
had been raining all day, the Colonel thought
it best to withdraw and not lose more men in
the vain attempt to dislodge the enemy, which
coidd not have been done with twice the number
of men. In his report the Colonel says; 'The
men all fought well, and no men could have
done better than they did. I feel certain that
I could not have dislodged the Indians with a
hundred and fifty men without losing at least
one-half of them. The Indians were brave, but
many of them must have been killed and
wounded.' He is returning to the place of ac-
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30 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
tion on the night of the 24th, with every man
mounted. He says further: 'The enlisted In-
dians you have sent me will be ,of great assist-
ance to me in finding the camp at ui^ht, and,
I hope, in a more accessible place. I will march
altogether by night, when I can follow the trail.
In contending with Cochise I do not think I
exaggerate when I say that we are contending
with one of the most intelligent hostile Indians
on the continent. '
"Eighteen Indians are known to have been
killed during the fight, and in Colonel Barnard's
command two privates were killed, and Lieuten-
ant LafEerty was wounded."
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A. P. BANTA.
Digitized By Google
EXPEDITIONS INTO INDUN OOTTNTRT.
EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTEY.
Santa's Discovert of "Meteoric Crater'* —
Banta, Cooley and Doih> Organize Expe-
dition to Hunt "Doc Thorn Mines"—
Banes op Lutle Colorado Used as Neit-
TRAL Ground by Indians for Trading Pur-
poses — ^Abrival of Expedition in Apache-
land — Objection op PiNAia to Progress op
Expedition — Expedition Retreats — Ap-
proach op the Military — Feats op Indian
Foot Runners — Organization op Peace
Party to Talk With Military — Peace
Party Arrested by Military — Release op
Peace Party — Military Officers Enter-
tained BY Apaches.
A. F. Banta figured as prominently in the early
history of Arizona as any other American. As we
have seen, he eame into tiie Territory vrith the Gu-
bernatorial Party, and his activities thereafter
cover almost every line of work. In 1866 he was
adopted into the Zuni tribe. He was a scout for
Gteneral Crook, and in 1871 discovered what is
now known as Meteoric Crater, in Crater Can-
yon, while carrying dispatches from Fort Whip-
ple. Banta 's own story of the discovery follows :
"In 1871 1 was acting as scout and guide for
Lieutenant Wheeler, who was at the head of
an expedition exploring tiie Canyon Diablo. I
was always scouting out around whenever the
expedition was in camp, and one day I came
to the edge of a great saucer-shaped hole in the
32 HIBTOBT OF ABIZONA.
ground. The more I looked across it the fur-
ther away the other side seemed to be. I, of
course, had my rifle with me, and took a notion
to fire a shot across the hole. My first shot I
shot almost straight across the hole. To my
astonishment I did not see any dirt fly on the
other side, but did see a cloud of dust rise from
the bottom of the hole, about half way across.
I then fired another shot, at a considerable ele-
vation, but it didn't reach across. I then fired
a third shot, at a still higher elevation, and it
barely reached the other side. Upon my return
to camp I reported my discovery to Lieut.
Wheeler, who investigated it, and called it
Franklin's Hole, by which name it was known
for many years, and which it is sometimes called
to this day. I was known as Charley Franklin
in those days, and Lieut. Wheeler named it after
In Volume 2 of this History, on page 241, a
short biography of Mr. Banta is given, in which
it is stated that he was a member of the 10th
Legislature, from Apache County. This is an
error, for Apache Coimty was not then created.
During the session of the 11th Legislature, Mr.
Banta was a member of the "Tliird House,"
and was instrmnental to a large degree in the
formation of Apache County, in which county
he was appointed Probate judge. He was a
member of the 12th Legislature, under the name
of C. A. Franklin. His name was afterward
changed to A. F. Banta.
Banta does not tell us why he changed his
name, and, in accordance with his ethics, it is
unwise, and rude to ask.
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EXPEDITIONS INTO DJDUN OOUNTBT. 33
In July, 1869, Banta, with C. E. Cooley and
Henry Wood Dodd, organized an expedition
to look for the Doc Thorn Mines. They had
with them a few Coyotero Indians for protec-
tion and guidance. Before they left the Indian
village, Captain Cressy, of the 3rd U. S. Cav-
alry, stationed at new Fort Wingate, witii a de-
tacmnent of soldiers and a guide, was sent over
to inspect the outfits of the three prospectors,
which he did on the morning of their departure,
July 12th, 1^9. The purpose of this inspec-
tion was to prevent illicit traffic in arms and
ammunition with hostile Indians.
Says Mr. Banta: "Of our three selves, each
one bad his pet object in the consummation of
this most remarkable expedition and wild goose
chase, viz.: Cooley was for seeking the Doc
Thorn placers, in the existence of which he was
a firm believer; Dodd to escape, for a time at
least, his oldtime and implacable enemy, John
Barleycorn ; the writer, at that time being young
and fuU of the Quixote spirit for adventure, and
not caring a tinker's wink where he went or
didn't went, simply went along as a matter of
course; anything tor adventure and the glad,
free life in the open.
"In the great extent of territory which has
been subdivided into the counties of Coconino,
Navajo, Apache, Greenlee, Gila, and a part of
Graham, any one of which is much larger than
is many an eastern state, all segregated from
old Yavapai county, mother of counties, since
the year 1869, and which was an almost un-
known and imexplored region of mountain-
ous country, not a single habitation of civiliza-
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31 HffiTORY OF ARIZOXA.
tion existed. But over all the Apache was the
undisputed despot, who defied the white man to
intrude or bring his crime-begetter, civilization.
The Little Colorado, in its 1^ miles of sinuous
course to a junction with the Rio Colorado
Grande, near the northern base of the San
Francisco mountain, did not contain a settle-
ment. The present towns of St Johns,
Springerville, and all others, even Fort Apache,
had not been thought of at this time. Never-
theless the Little Colorado possesses an imique
distinction among all the rivers of the great
southwest; not on accoimt of any scenic terri-
tory through which it flows, although its great
canyon near the San Francisco mountain is sec-
ond in grandeur only to the Grand ; nor to any
medicinal or sanitative properties of its waters,
but to the fact that from time immemorial, and
since the extinction of a once semi-civilized peo-
ple that dwelt here, this stream has been recog-
nized by all warring tribes of Indians to be neu-
tral territory, and immune from the whoop of
savage warfare. Between hostilities, the vari-
ous tribes occupying the territory upon either
side of the Little Colorado river, met in armed
neutrality on their respective banks of the river^
to barter and sell their simple commodities. On
the summit of a distant mountain peak peace
signal smokes were made, and at once trading
parties were organized and armed to meet the
coming Apaches at the river. The writer ac-
companied a party of Zuni Indians on one of
these expeditions in the summer of 1866, and at
other times thereafter.
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EXPEDITIONa INTO INDUN COUNTBT. 35
"Notwithstanding the peaceful nature of
these 'trading trips' it was necessary at all times
to be prepared to fight a hostile party if met
while en route to the neutral ground. Every
precaution was adopted to guard against sur-
prise, and, if a small party, to deceive the
enemy as to nxunbers. At night a good watch
was kept. Do you know how Indians 'stand
guard'? Never like the fool white man who
goes stumhling about in the darkness, making
more or less racket, thus enabling a skulking
foe to hand him a bunch of lead, or an arrow,
the silent messenger of death. No, the Indians
never do these fool stunts ; on the contrary, all
lie down in a circle, and the more warriors, the
larger the circle, and vice versa. In this posi-
tion most any noise can be heard, and at a much
greater distance than in an upright position.
Lying within reach of one another, the watch-
time divided so as to cover all for that duty, the
watch starts on its round ; one lies there awake,
listening, and when his time is up, he touches
ttie one next, and No. 1 goes to sleep while 'next'
listens, and so on aroimd the circle, and when
tile last in the circle has completed his watdi,
it is time to move. In case of an alarm the
touch goes aroimd the circle almost instantly
and every warrior is wide awake and listening.
If necessary, the chief gives his orders, and
likely a few scouts are sent out, while the others
slip to cover like silent shadows or noiseless
spectres. The writer has, at divers times,
formed one of the xmits in the circle above de-
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36 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA.
"Following the old Apache-Zuni trail, at noon
the third day out from Zuni, we reached the
Little Colorado river, at the point of rocks
which juts out into the river perhaps a mile to
the east of where Colonel Himt's old ranch was
subsequently located. After crossing the river
into Apacheland, noon camp was made, and
Cooley caught a mess of bonytails for our din-
ner. That night we made camp about the
middle of Concho wash, which was thickly cov-
ered with grass and willows, the grass being
more than knee high. Among the willows I
foimd an Apache wickiup, and a heavy storm
of rain coming on, I slept the night in the
Apache house. Without further incident de-
serving of mention, our party arrived at the
home of the Coyotero Apaches on the Carizo
Creek, late in the afternoon of July 18th, 1669.
"Coming with the diief and some of his best
and most teusty braves, we were most cordially
received by the people in the rancheria. By a
system of signals used by all Apaches, our com-
ing was known at the Coyotero camp two days
before we arrived there, and was known by
tribes farther to the westward, so on the morn-
ing following our arrival at the Carizo, several
Pinal and White Motmtain Apaches came into
camp to 'size us up,' having been sent to do so
by their respective chiefs. By this system of
signalling, news is transmitted to all parts of
the Apa(5ieria inside of twenty-four hours.
"It became necessary that we remain at the
Coyotero camp for several days to recuperate
ourselves .and animals; to better study the sen-
timent of the Apaches, and to organize a suit-
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTET. 37
able party before we attempted to invade the
country of the fierce Finals to the westward.
In the meantime the women and girls bxiilt a
good wickiup for our use, which was well
thatched, dry and comfortable.
*'My outside clothing consisted of a suit of
buckskin and moccasins in which I slept every
night. My saddle animal was tethered close to
me at night, and on my saddle, which I used
for a pillow, I had a canteen of fresh water and
a small buckskin sack, holding nearly a quart,
filled with pinole (parched cracked com or
wheat), on which I was good for three or four
himdred miles of travel. Being always ready
for an emergency, ever watchfiu and alert, the
Apaches named me Bah-dah-cleshy, the Gray
Fox, and I was pretty well known to many of
the old-timers as * Buckskin Charlie.' In the
old days it was never considered good form to
ask anyone his name ; as a matter of fact, to do
so, was a piece of blankety-blank impertinence.
Wherefore, I have known many men for more
than twenty years, without once hearing their
"The simple life of the Apache, as he was in
his native element before contamination and
utter degradation by the noble ( t) white man,
was one of proud manhood and independence.
He was not, as now with schools and civilization
( f ) the dirty, immoral vagabond that he is to-
day. Had Alexander Pope witnessed, as the
writer has witnessed, the degrading evolution
of the Indian trying to imitate civilization in
his nondescript habiliments, the great poet
would have said more than: 'Lo, the poor In-
38 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA.
dian, whose untutored mind sees God in the
clouds and hears him in the winds. * He would
have unmercifully scored the 'noble' white man
for his debauchery of the simple red man.
"Having gained the confidence and consequent
friendship of the Coyoteros, we secured a party
of warriors, including the chief and his brother,
El Diablo, also the interpreter, Miguel, and one
middle-aged woman, to accompany us on our
phantasmal expedition in search of a more than
El Dorado, the 'Doc Thorn gold placers.'
"Cooley had obtained from Doctor Thorn,
before leaving the Rio Grande, all necessary
data as to 'landmarks,' etc, which included the
'Sombrero Butte,' the Sierra 'Pintados' and
the 'Stone Corral.' As Doc Thorn was a cap-
tive among the Apaches in the late fifties, by
whom and for what purpose was' the 'stone cor-
ral' built? It was an old structure in Thorn's
time. A legend of the Santa Catalina moun-
tains, eastward of Tucson, says that at one time
the Jesuit priests worked a veiy rich mine in
those mountains. Thirty-nine years ago Johnny
Hart and the writer, on a prospecting trip into
the Santa Catalinas, foimd an old stone house
and stone corral in a deep canyon, but at the
time knew nothing of the 'legend'; it simply
excited our wonder and no more.
"The day set for our departure arrived. We
bade our Coyotero friends goodby, and hit the
trail leading over the range to the eastward.
On the afternoon of the second day out from
the Coyotero camp on the Carizo, we made camp
in the ^ade of a large cottonwood tree, near
EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 39
the east bank of Gibicu Creek. At this time
the Cibieu Creek was the division line of terri-
tory between Coyotero and Pinal Apaches, and
therefore it was neutral ground. In early times,
and in fact, in all times, it was the imiversal
custom among the American Indians to have
their hunting grounds strictly defined, each
tribe possessing territorial rights, and for a
member of a neighboring or other tribe to tres-
pass thereon was a casus belli, and one of the
principal causes for the many intertribal wars.
It was also customary to designate certain
places as neutral or common groimds, where
members of various tribes could meet to barter
and sell. It was absolutely necessary for all
parties to respect the neutrality pact, otherwise
all intercourse between the people must cease.
"Prior to the Kit Carson campaign against
the Navahos, and for some years thereafter, it
was no uncommon sight to see a party of Nava-
hos encamped on the north bank of the Little
Colorado River, and a similar party of Apaches
on the south bank, having met on this 'neutral'
strip to exchange commodities; although at the
time the bitterest hatred existed between the
two camps. There are other reasons for these
'neutrality grounds' but I have said enough,
and will not go further into the details in this
"The following morning our semi-war party
were in no rush to break camp at the Cibieu,
as, before leaving this neutral strip, it was neces-
sary to have some definite plan of action in case
of war. before we crossed the Rubicon and
plunged into, as it was afterwards proved, a hos-
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40 HI8T0BT OF ARIZONA.
tile territory. Therefore, the forenoon was de-
voted mostly to 'war-talk.' Whilst engaged
discussing the pros and cons of a prospective
war, we were not a little surprised to see in
our midst a fierce-looklDg Apache brave, splen-
didly mounted bareback upon a fine black stallion.
He carried a long lance, and his whole body was
naked, except the 'indispensable,' painted in
the war colors of the Apache nation. The war-
rior's appearance was so sudden and silent, he
seemed to have dropped from the heavens.
When we first observed this strange Indian, he
was silently and stoically sitting on his horse, not
having as yet uttered a word, nor did he speak
until first addressed by our chief. After an
exchange of a few gutteral words with our chief,
and a significant gesture with his lance, he re-
crossed me Cibicu and disappeared westward
into the territory of the Finals.
"After the swift departure of the Pinal war-
rior, our Apache allies had a war talk among
themselves, and immediately at its close, through
the interpreter Miguel, we were informed of
their decision. The chief said: 'Our visitor
was a Pinal brave and his mission from his
chief, Bah-dah-clah-nah, Black Wolf, was to
warn us that further progp^ss westward into
Pinal territory was prohibited ; that if we per-
sisted it involved war; that his people kmew
our object was pesh-la-chi, yellow metal, which
they did not want us to find ; that if you i)eople
found gold, your people, meaning Americans,
would cover the whole country and take posses-
sion as they did of the lands of the Hualapais.'
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 41
He had reference to the Prescott section of the
"Here was a dilemma, though not wholly un-
expected to be sure, but a real situation con-
fronted us, and it was no theory by any means
and it necessitated another, or supplemental
'war-talk* by our little party. This we pro-
ceeded to do in the usual manner, sitting in a
circle, with a small fire in the center of the ring.
The customary smoking having been indulged
in, the Apaches talked over the situation for
perhaps a half hour, in which they decided on
a plan of action. The chief did about all the
talking, as he discussed the predicament, and
the only signs occasionally made by the other
members of the tribe were evidently those of
approval. Having finished his talk to his peo-
ple, the chief turned to us three Americans and,
through the interpreter, said: 'The question of
going on in defiance of the Finals would be left
to our decision ; if we said go, they were willing
to go; that the Coyoteros (referring to them-
selves), were all true warriors, accustomed to
following the war trail, and were not like timid
fawns, arfraid of their own shadows, and if the
Finals had decided for war, then let it be war
to the death, for they did not possess any more
skill, endurance or bravery, man for man, than
the Coyoteros; but,' said the chief, 'I leave the
matter to you; I have spoken and you have
heard and understand my words.'
"It was evident that our Apache allies were
perfectly sincere, and it was further evident
to us that they did not care to assume the respon-
sibility of a war with the Finals, or else they
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^ HISTOBY OF ABIZONA.
wished to rely upon the (supposed) superior
judgment of the 'white man.' Having heard
the talk made b^ the Apadie chief, we talked
over our situation, and it was unanimously
agreed between our three selves that we had
bumped up against a serious difficulty.
"The situation presented itself this wise:
There were three of us in the Apacheria, sur-
rounded on all sides, for a distance of from one
to two hundred miles, by hostile foes who, at
that very moment, were fighting to the death
for their hereditary rights, and for their lives
and for their liberties, and that, too, with our
own nationality, the 'white skins.' However,
Webster truthfully defines the so-called Ameri-
can savage when he says: 'The savages of
America, when uncorrupted by the vices of the
civilized man,, are remarkable for their hospi-
tality to strangers, and for their truth, fidelity,
and gratitude to their friends, but implacably
cruel tmd revengeful toward their enemies.'
But, in this matter of cruelty and savagery, the
civilized Christian man, with his inquisitional
instruments of torture, and his witch tortures
and burnings, and other methods of cruelty, is
so far ahead of the so-called savage in devilish-
ness, that he can give the red man cards and
spades in the game, and then win out, thiunbs
down. This is a bitter pill for the 'civilized'
egotist to swallow; nevertheless it is the gospel
truth, and cannot be truthfully contradicted.
"In our deliberations we arrived at the con-
clusion that a fight with the Finals was an abso-
lute certainty so soon as we passed westward
beyond the limits of the neutral strip; that to
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 43
involve our Apache friends in a war with a
neighboring tribe and other tribes westward, and
solely in a selfish interest of our own, was hardly
the square way to act, no matter what amount
of yellow inducements were or might be in front.
Therefore, we told the diief that notwithstand-
ing the well known bravery of himself and his
warriors, we had decided it was prudent, con-
sidering the smallness of our party, to execute
at once a 'masterly retreat' back to the Carizo
''Whether or not it was the prospect of avoid-
ing a fight with the Finals, or the returning
to the rancheria and their women and children,
I cannot say, but I do say they seemed pleased
with our decision to take the back trail. The
pack animals were immediately loaded and the
'retreat' began, with more or less precipitancy.
StilJ, I don't wish to insinuate that our party
was at all timorous, and the haste made at the
beginning of the return march may have been
caused by the burros being anxious to return
home and be relieved of their packs. This
seems to be the most plausible reason for the
fast time made in returning.
"In due time we were again occupying our
wickiup in the rancheria on the Carizo. The
day following our inglorious skiddoo back from
the Cibicu, reports of a big military expedition
penetrating the Apacheria from the south be-
gan to reach us by Apache runners. The char-
acter of this military expedition was, of course,
wholly unknown to us, we being at that time
at least six days' march to the southward of
our Carizo camp. The first runner came into
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44 HI8T0BY OF ABIZONA.
camp some time during the night of July 23rd»
and the following morning all were informed
of the ^proach of an armed force ; this runner,
by the way, in proof of his report, displayed a
badly shattered arm, which had been almost ^ot
away by a soldier or other person along with the
troops. Of course, in a crude way, we fixed
his arm with improvised flints and bandages,
and our surgical work proved successful, for
the man got well and recovered the use of his
arm. At this juncture of affairs, Cooley and
Dodd became seriously alarmed; as for myself,
knowing the troops to be so far away, I had not
the slightest imeasiness, for I never thought
once of danger from our own Apaches. On the
contrary, both Cooley and Dodd feared our
Apaches would kill us in retaliation for the kill-
ings by the soldiers. In accordance with the
generally accepted notion of the red man, our
massacre would naturally follow ; hence the rea-
sonableness in the alarm felt by Cooley and
"The evening of the 24th, another runner
came in and reported the soldiers were still
advancing, and tlmt they were numerous enough
to cover ^e whole country. On the evening of
the 25th, another messenger arrived, who re-
ported 'the soldiers are many, and when break-
ing camp this morning many of them were al-
ready on the top of a high mesa before all had
left tiieir camp. ' Of course four troops of cav-
alry with their Indian allies and a big train of
pack-mules, all strung out in single file along
an Indian trail, must naturally make a very
long and picturesque line of blue coats, their
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ESFEDTnONa INTO INDIAN COUNTBT. 45
arms and accoutrements glinting in the rays of
the morning sun. The evening of the 26th an-
other runner came in and said the troops were
still headed in our direction, and he estimated
their number at about four hundred men.
Early in the evening of the 27th one of our
Apaches came in and said: 'The soldiers are en-
camped at the jimction of two streams, ' giving
their Apache names, which have slipped my
memory, but are now known by the whites as
the east and west forks of White river, and he
had talked, at a long distance, with a 'cautivo,'
the interpreter for the military; and that he
imderstood the interpreter to say: 'His party,
(the military), wished to see all the Indians and
have a peace talk with them.'
"I have gone into detail in the matter of the
daily movements of the military in order to show
how utterly impossible it was for the troops to
surprise or capture our camp. Had our people
known the falsity lying b^iind the white flag
displayed by the interpreter, and that his words
were 'forked like a snake's tongue,' the troops
could not have found a living sotu in our ranche-
ria had we any reason or desire to escape from
them. It can readily be seen that our camp
was daily informed of the movements of the
troops, fully five days prior to their encampment
at the junction of the east and west forks of the
White river, on the 27th day of July, 1869,
thirty-five or forty miles from our rancheria on
"The foregoing daily reports made by the
runners may appear to many to he incredible,
but to illustrate the great Stances that were
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46 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
covered by Indian foot-runners, I will cite feats
performed by the Yuma Indian foot-runners :
*'In the old days of the Colorado Steam Navi-
gation Company at Yuma, it was the custom
of the company agent at Yuma, Captain Pol-
hamus, after the river steamer had been gone
two days, three days were usually required, to
dispatch a message to the agent at Port Ysabel,
at the head of the Gulf of California. This mes-
sage was given to a Yuma, who carried it afoot
across a sandy desert a distance of ninety miles,
reaching his destination the same day the river
steamer was due to arrive, but invariably in
advance of the boat. The Indian always cov-
ered the distance between sunrise and sunset,
performing the same feat on his return. An-
other celebrated Yuma runner cleared his 121
miles between sunup and sundown, and the fol-
lowing day repeated the same feat. This was
done under a prearranged test case made by
Americans at Yuma.
"Chief Es-cah-pah came to our wickiup and
requested Cooley and the writer to accompany
him to the camp of the soldiers, to have a 'peace-
talk' with the *hig chief of the soldiers.* We
promised the chief that we would go, but Dodd
objected to the plan and declared that he would
not remain behind in the Indian encampment.
Dodd did not care to be left alone with the
Apadies for the reason, as he said, 'the soldiera
had been killing the Indians at every opportu-
nity, and destroying their corn and other crops,
and the Indians might retaliate by killing me.*
It was necessary that one of us should remain in
camp to look after our common and personal
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 47
I>lunder, and to act in case some unforeseen con-
tingency should come up. Therefore, I said to
Dodd, 'You and Charley go with the chief, and
I will stay here with the Indians. '
"The chief accepted the change and smilingly
said: 'I did want my younger brother with me,
but he is without suspicion or fear, and shall
remain with my people.' All matters being sat-
isfactorily arranged, the 'peace party,' consist-
ing of Chief Es-cah-pah, El Diablo (the chief's
oldest brother), the cautivo, Miguel, as inter-
preter, C. E. Cooley, and Henry Wood Dodd,
started for the camp of the unknown soldiery,
forty miles away to tiie southwest.
"Our 'peace party' reached the soldiers' camp
in the afternoon of the same day, but instead of
being received with open arms and crowned with
white blossoms, they were immediately sur-
rounded and disarmed by the troops and a strong
guard placed over them, with orders to shoot
down anyone or all of them should any move be
made to escape.
"Here was a dilenama of which our Apaches
in the rancheria and myself were in total igno-
rance. Huero, the sub-chief, left in charge of
our rancheria on the Carizo, sent out scouts to
take note of all movements in and about the en-
campment of the soldiers. The scouts, return-
ing at intervals, reported that our peace party
had undoubtedly been shot as not one of them
could be seen in the soldiers' camp, and that
the soldiers continued to fire upon any Apaches
who exposed themselves. This situation of af-
fairs naturally placed me in a very embarrassing
position, to say the least, alone in the camp of
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4& HISIOBY OF ARIZONA.
a wild, savage people, any one of whom might
plug me at any moment, in retaliation for a
relative killed by the troops. However, I
deemed them a reasonable people; that tttey
knew it was the original intention of the chief
to have me along with his peace party and why
it was otherwise ordered; that had I gone with
the peace pariy my fate would have been the
same. Therefore, tlie Apaches must know that I
was no party to the 'white flag treachery' and
the supposed murder of the peace party. Tak-
ing this view of the situation I felt no alarm in
the least, and carried myself as one of their own
people. I talked with tiie sub-chief, Huero, and
endeavored to convince him how improbable
was the supposition that our peace party was
killed, and how all would be well in the end.
"A little while before the sun set behind the
range which bordered our rancheria on the west,
and the third day after the departure of our
peace party, Huero came to me and said: 'A
large body of soldiers and some Apaches are
now about two miles away;' that he did not see
any one of our people with the troops, and,
therefore, they must have been killed. I argued
that it was unreasonable to suppose them to be
murdered; that undoubtedly our friends were
along with the approaching troops, but he had
failed to distinguidi them, owing to distance and
they being mixed up with so many people. We
discussed the situation ; Huero was for leaving
the rancheria at once, saying: 'We can easily
get away from the soldiers,' and asked my ad-
vice about the matter. I argued with Huero
against his plan of running away; that to do so
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTBT. 49
looked bad ; and indicated a cause for doing so.
Furthermore, to abandon the place at the ap-
proach of the troops would endanger the lives
of our peace party, all of whom would be held as
hostages for our return, and would be cowardly
abandoned by us to their fate. My coimsels pre-
vailed, and not an Indian attempted to leave the
rancberia. When the soldiers appeared in
sight, one woman whose husband had quite re-
cently been killed, became so frightened, she
picked up her baby and fled.
"Seeing the troops yet a quarter of a mile
away, Huero took" my towel, which hung on the
comer of our wickiup, and fastened one end of
it to a stick, and the other end of the stick he
tied with twisted bow strings into the top of a
dwarf cedar near the soum end of the Uttle
mesa, upon which was situate the rancheria, and
perhaps fifty yards from our camp. When the
troops were within about three hundred yards
I walked out towards the soutii end of the mesa,
where lay an oak log upon which I stood that I
might have a better view of the approadiing
troops. All the Apaches, men, women, and chil-
dren, followed me and stood about the log, the
sub-chief by my side on the log. It was about
sunset when the troops filed past us at a distance
of perhaps forty yards. As they passed I
looked for the members of our party but could
not see them, nor did Huero see them, and when
the last man had passed, Huero said, * Where are
our people f I replied, 'Damfino, we must have
overlooked them. * The troops made camp
about a hundred and fifty yards north of and
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50 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
above our rancheria. During the passing by of
the troops I failed to note a single friendly ex-
pression on the face of &nj one of them ; on the
contrary, there was a sinister look and only a
sidelong glance of the eyes towards me and the
Indians; yet, I was not suspicious, and attrib-
uted the ominous expressions to fatigue. Soon
after the soldiers made camp our peace party
came into our camp, and, as a consequence, there
was much quiet rejoicing among our people,
dissipating all thoughts of treachery on the part
of the troops.
"The officers with this troop of horse were
Captain Barry in command, lAeut. Frank Up-
ham, since retired as Major, who died a few
years ago at Santa Monica, California, and
Lieut Calhoun. Also with the troops were two
civilians, one acting as interpreter, and the other
one was George Cooler, for many years a resi-
dent of Tucson, but who recently died at the
Soldiers Home, Santa Monica, California. The
twelve (tame) Apaches, including their chief
Manuel, were along to do the trailing and mur-
"That evening the officers came down to our
camp and had an Indian supper with us, the
Apache women and girls, all of whom were more
or less scantily clad, doing the culinary act. The
guilelessness and wholesouled hospitality of the
females, in their simple endeavor to entertain
and to please the strangers, were imsuspicious of
the fact that they and their little ones were to be
most foully murdered on the morrow. When I
looked on this, and that nif^t learned of the in-
tended massacre to take place early on the fol-
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTBT. 51
lowing moming, my very soul revolted at the
heinousness of the crime and the foul treachery
to be perpetrated.
"There was one man in our rancheria that
was suspicious and who did not like the looks of
things; it was Huero, the sub-chief. Several
times during the evening and before the people
went to sleep, he came to where I was sitting
apart from the officers and taking no part in the
general conversation, and asked what I thought
about it, and if I thought the soldiers were all
right. I answered him in the afEirmative, and
tlut so far as I could see or knew at the time,
'everything seems to be all right, and I see or
know of no cause for apprehension on our part.'
Finally he appeared to be satisfied, as I saw him
no more that night.
"In the early days a story was current
throughout New Mexico and Arizona that the
Apaches used the precious metals in lieu of lead,
which they made bullets of. I never gave mudi
credence to the story, deeming it mythical and
on a par with the numerous legends of 'lost
mines* and 'buried treasures.*
"One day I was away from the rancheria in
company with an Apache who was about my own
age. We had sat down on a point overlooking
iJie rancheria, and while we sat down, talking
as best we could, a mixed .jargon of Apache,
English and Spanish, he pulled out his pouch,
a pouch similar to those used by frontiersmen
in the old days of the muzzle-loading rifle, a
chunk of white metal, and, handing it to me,
asked what it was. I wag not a bit wiser than
he, as I had never seen any but coined silver.
52 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
The chunk was the size of a large hen egg, and
heavy as lead. I told him it was some kind of
metal, and probably it was lead. At that time
I did not know that lead was never found in a
pure state, but only as a sulphide. As I re-
turned the chunk to him, I asked him where he
got it, and he pointed southward and said, 'It's
about three sleeps from here, lying on the
ground and is black ; plenty of it there and some
day when the other two, Cooley and Dodd, go
away, we will go and get some to make bullets. '
Of course they could not melt it in the ordinary
bullet ladle, but had to cut it into small squares
and with smooth stones poimded it into bullets.
It was only used in this way when they were
short of lead. The Apache insisted that I keep
the chunk and I put it in my sack. I handed it
to Jack, and he said it was a silver nugget, and
wanted to know where I got it I told Jack the
story as I tell it here. I never once attempted
to find those 'planebas de plata.' "
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COTJNTET. 53
EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY (Con-
Captain Babby Obdered by Colonel Oreen to
Massacre Indians — Captain Babby Dia-
OBETS Orders and is Placed Under Ab-
BE8T — Big Dance op the Pinai^— *'Dodd's
Dance" — Reception by the Tontos — ^Ab-
BiVAL AT Camp Reno — Intercede With
General Devin foe Captain Babby — Cap-
tain Babbt Released and Rettjbned to
Dtjty — Disbandment op Expedition —
Desceiption op C. E. Cooley, His Ranch
and His Squaws.
"After the officers had returned to their camp
and all the Indians were quietly sleeping in their
several wickiups, the time being between one
and two o'clock, Cooley said to me, 'What do
you suppose those soldiers are here for V
'Well,' I replied, *to see the Indians; locate the
rancheria; note the topography of the country,
and take a look aroxmd generally.' 'Not a
bit of it,' replied Cooley. 'Captain Barry's
orders were to secure you, then to kill every
Indian in this camp, regardless of age or sex;
that was Colonel Green's order for I heard it
given. As for ourselves, we have been declared
outlaws, subject to a drumhead courtmartial and
summarily shot, unless we can clear ourselves of
the charges.' To me this was a most astounding
revelation and my blood fairly boiled with
horror and indignation. I was responsible for
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54 HI3T0BY OF ABIZONA.
the presence of the Apaches, and to acquiesce in
and become a party to such a dastardly, double-
dyed act of treachery, was an act that even a dog
would not be guilty of doing. I then resolved
that come what may, no such dastardly work
should go on if it was within my power to pre-
vent or avoid it. I berated both Cooley and
Dodd for bringing the troops there for so out-
rageous a purpose, and told them that we, (my-
self and tiie Indians), had ample time to get
away, but that I had persuaded the Indians to
stay there, and I would not stand for any such
dirty work. As for Captain Barry, after re-
ceiving the simple hospitality of these people, to
reward kindness and hospitality with treachery
and cold blooded murder, he would be a disgrace
to humanity ; that even the fiends in hell would
feel themselves di^raced by such an act, and I
could not nor would not stand for it. Cooley
said in reply: 'I know it's an outrage and a
shame, hut Dodd and I were powerless to pre-
vent the troops coming here, as all of us (the
peace party) were prisoners and under the eyes
of a strong military guard, so you now under-
stand the situation we are in. ' Yet I failed to
comprehend and said to Cooley, 'If you two are
prisoners, how is it you are here in our camp?'
He replied that hiinself and Dodd were on
parole, having pledged their honor not to escape,
and that this was done to aUay suspicion among
the Indians ; that the massacre woiild have taken
place this evening had the troops arrived ear-
Uer; ttiat the massacre was postponed until
morning, fearing that in the darkness m any of
the Indians might possibly escape. WMle
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDUN OOUNTBY. 55
Cooley was making the foregoing statement, I
had risen and was ready for flight, and then he
asked me what I was going to do, and I said,
'Notify the people that they may make their
"It will be remembered, as before stated, that
the rancheria was located near the edge of a
small mesa on the east side of, and overlooking
the Carizo creek on the west. The narrow val-
ley of the creek was thickly covered with wild
cane (carizo) and on the west side of it was a
steep mountain inaccessible to cavalry. It was
the usual custom among the Apaches to have
their camps on a mesa or point, with a mountain
or rough country for a background. This was
done as a precaution and for protection against
any sudden raid by horsemen. Our rancheria
was no exception to the rule, having a mountain
adjoining both front and rear, and all our peo-
ple had te do was to quietly slip off the mesa into
the thick cane, then climb the precipitous moun-
tain on the west side of the creek.
" 'Good God, don't do that,' said Cooley, now
thoroughly excited, *we are now outlawed and
would be shot in the morning.' I answered,
'There's catching before hanging;' that I was
not imder parole and would hike with the
Apaches; they could say to Captain Barry in
the morning that they had mentioned the matter
to me, and that sometime in the night I had
warned the Indians and all had silently stolen
away. Before this I had suggested to Cooley
and Dodd that both skin out as they were made
prisoners under a white flag, and imder such cir-
cumstances they had a perfect right to take ad-
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56 HurroBT of abizona.
Tantage of the situation, but both refused to do
"Cooley then proposed that Dodd and himself
get up and go to the soldiers' camp, awaken the
officers and have another talk. I promised to
say nothing to the sleeping Indianw until they
returned; but I wam^ tiiem that too mudi
treachery had already been practiced, and on the
slightest sign of any more I would alarm the
people, and 'I mean it, so help me God.* Both
went up to the soldiers' camp, and I walked
around among the Indians' wickiups, but kept
a watchful eye on the military encampment.
This was nearly liiree o'clock in the morning
and I could see, but dimly, the sentries over the
"You must first catch your fish before you
can eat it. To one like myself, whose whole life
has been spent on the frontiers of our common
country, and who is as familiar with the moun-
tains and plains as most people are with the
streets of their native villages, it appeared to
me the acme of absurdity to even suppose that
Ixmibering cavalrymen could catch me in the
open should I dioose to evade them. Hence it
was evident to me that if you eat any fish, you
must first catch them.
"At the first sign of treachery I intended to
give the sleeping Indians warning. Cooley and
Dodd were absent about an hour, perhaps, so it
seemed to me, but it may not have been half
that time, when both returned to camp.
" 'Well, how it is I' I asked at once. Cooley
being our talking man by the common consent
of Dodd and myself, replied: 'I think Captain
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COTTNTBT. 57
Barry will disregard his Colonel's orders and
not massacre the Indians.' I said, 'What you
think dont go. I want more than guesswork in
a matter of this kind.' He then said they had
gone over the situation with Captain Barry and
his Lieutenants; they intimated my attitude in
the matter; that George Cooler had also ti^en
part in the talk; that Cooler told Captain Barry
that he knew Mr. Cooley at Fort Craig, New
Mexico ; that Cooley was Lieutenant and Quar-
termaster at that post and that he, George
Cooler, was a government wagonmaster under
Cooley at that time, and a lot more was said at
this conference. Yet I was not satisfied and
Cooley said, 'Great God, Dodd, how did you
understand Barry?' Dodd replied, *If I un-
derstand the meaning of words, the Captain
will not murder the Indians in the morning,'
and to me he said, 'I pledge you my word on it.'
I had great confidence in Dodd as he was a man
of few words and ahsolutely fearless. By this
time the stars in the eastern s^ had commenced
to grow dim, and relying on Dodd's statement,
I lay down to sleep. The following morning,
August 1st, I awoke quite late, and, springing
up, I saw Captain Barry and Cooley walking
along the hrow of the mesa, and instantly felt
that no massacre would take place.
"Captain Barry decided to hold a 'big talk'
and told the chief to send out runners and have
all his people in the rancheria for a 'big peace
talk' next day. The Indians assembled, and I
saw a few Finals and White Mountain Apaches
squatted among the bushes on the outskirts of
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58 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA.
the rancheria, who were there to observe and
hear what was said at the big pow-wow.
"On the 2nd of August the pow-wow took
place. Captain Barry explained his orders
from Colonel Green; that he had decided to dis-
obey his orders to massacre them as a matter of
humanity ; that the consequences to himself for
disobeying his superior's orders was a very seri-
ous matter and would cause him much trouble ;
that the Colonel received his orders from still
higher authority which was above Colonel
Green, and, said the Captain, 'I want the prin-
cipal men of this tribe to go with these Ameri-
cans to Camp McDowell where you will see
General Thomas E. Devin, who is the only person
that has the right to make peace with you, and
if the General makes terms with you, he will
give you papers that will protect you hereafter. '
"There was consternation among the females
when the Captain made known his murderous
orders, and a distinct murmur went the rounds
among them. The women appeared greatly
frightened and looked furtively about, and they
nervously clutched their little ones as if to flee
from the presence of some hideous monster. The
men, on the contrary, received the news in
silence and stoical indifEerence. On the chief's
face appeared the shadow of a smile and a bale-
ful glitter in his one eye. And I can never for^
get the look of the sub-chief, Huero, when our
eyes met as the captain stated his orders. How-
ever, when the people learned of my actions of
the night before, they simply idolized me as if I
had done something heroic, and the stand I took
the previous night undoubtedly had all to do
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDUN COITNTBY. 59
with the attitude of the Apaches toward me
afterwards when in a worse and more dangerous
"The following day, August 3rd, Captain
Barry returned with his troop to Colonel
Green's camp at the junction of the east and
west forks of the White river. When Captain
Barry reported to his Colonel the results of his
trip to ^e Apache rancheria on the Carizo,
Colonel Green became very angry and ordered
Barry to consider himself under arrest. The
Captain was relieved of his command, and his
First Lieutenant was ordered to assume com-
mand of the troop.
"Soon afterwards the Colonel selected an-
other site for Camp Ord, locating it on the mesa
a little further eastward, where it is to-day,
known as Port Apache. This camp was strate-
gically situated as it was in the center of the
Apacneria. Having established a permanent
military camp, with a part of his command as a
garrison, Colonel Green returned with the re-
mainder of his force to Camp Goodwin south of
the Gila. Soon after his arrival at Camp Good-
win the Colonel formulated a set of 'charges and
specifications' against Captain Barry, in which
he alleged 'disobedience of orders' and the viola-
tion of certain articles of war; all of which,
summed up, was 'conduct imbecoming an officer
and a gentleman. ' These charges, specifications,
etc., were sent to General Devin, commanding
the southern military district of Arizona, and
whose headquarters were then at Camp
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60 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA.
"In pursuance with the agreement with Cap-
tain Barry, our three selves, the chief Es-c^-
pah, the chief's brother, El Diablo, one middle-
aged woman, Miguel, the eautivo interpreter,
and twenty-six picked warriors, about ten
o'clock A. M., August 3rd, 1869, made another
and second start westward. This time our ob-
jective point was Fort McDowell, and not, as in
the first instance, a search for an El Dorado,
with Sombrero Butte, Sierra Pintados, and the
Stone Corral, the guiding landmarks by which
we were to find a goleonda. Arriving at the
outskirts of the Pinal territory, our litUe party
of thirty-three was met, as before, by a Pinal
warrior, but this time without his warpaint.
Notwithstanding the pow-wow on the Carizo
was held only the day before, the Pinals and
other distant tribes were aware of our coming,
and all knew the object of our mission to Camp
"The Pinal warrior said he was sent by his
chief, Bah-dah-clah-oah, to guide our party to a
certain place where the Pinals would meet ua
and have a big dance as a welcome ceremony by
the Pinals. This place was afterwards known,
and is down on all the military maps, as Dodd's
Dance. It was here we, or at least Cooley and
Dodd, came very close to the end of our earthly
careers. Our party reached the place desig-
nated, imder guidance of the Pinal warrior, a
little while before sunset, but not a single
Apache was then in sight. About dark the
Pinals made a sudden appearance, and in half
an hour more there were probably four hundred
in sighl The Apache women made their indi-
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 61
vidual camps in a horizontal line along the base
of a small hill that extended east and west, and
which was thickly covered with small trees and
bushes. Our camp was located about two hun-
dred yards further southward upon more level
and open ground, having bushes of chaparral
scattered here and there. As soon as darkness
set in, the Finals made a large fire of pinyon, a
short distance south of the line of campfires; the
big fire to make light for the dancers. Shortly
after this the tom-toms were heard, and the
dancing began in the manner of all the North
American Indians. Occasionally peals of
laughter were heard, and a general feeling of
good himaor seemed to prevail. Cooley and
Bodd had already gone up to the 'dance fire* and
were seated nearby upon a log among a number
of Indians. I remained standing in our camp
for a while, Ustenin^ to the babel of sounds and
watching the ghostlike figures moving about in
the firehght. Finally buckling on my two six-
shooters, and throwing a large red blanket about
my shoulders, I went to where the dancing was in
progress. I was always wary and watchful, and
ready for any emergency, however sudden and
unexpected; hence, instead of squatting down
within the iirelight, where one could be so easily
plugged, I attempted to pass unseen around on
the west aide. But the keen eyes of the Apaches
discerned me, and finding myself observed, I ap-
proached to the outer rim of the firelight. The
Apache girls, ranging in age from fullgrown
down to four or five years, gathered together
with joined hands, the tallest in the center
and tapering both ways from the center, the
62 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
ends of the two horns terminating with five-year
old girla Thus, in the shape of a crescent
moon, they danced up to me and back again, the
tallest one in the center repeating a few words,
and the others joining in a sort of refrain. At
times the wor(& caused mudi laughter among
the men who had stopped their dancing to look
at the girls dance. By the laughter among the
men I imagined they were guying me, so with-
drew back into the darkness. Passing around
to the north side I sat down amidst a lot of
bushes and small trees, outside the range of the
firelight, but where every movement of the In-
dians could be seen plainly.
"The Pinal chief, Bah-dah-clah-nah, during
the smoke and talk guaranteed protection, and
his responsibilitv for the safety of our animals
and other plunder. The chief's hair had re-
cently been cut off close to the skull, a sign of
mourning for the death of a brother killed by
the troops a short while before. The chief
didn't present a very prepossessing appearance,
squatted on a blanket in front of we three
Ainericans who were standing, Dodd on the left,
Cooley next, and I on the right. Always pos-
sessed of a keen sense for the humorous or
ridiculous, in whatsoever guise it might appear,
I was forced to chuckle when the cmef said he
would be responsible for our property, and,
nudging Charley, remarked, 'Look at that Jack
Sheppard head, it has a responsible look, don't
it?' Cooley, taking my remark seriously, said,
'Great God, what else can we do, we are helpless
and in their power.* Cooley often said to me,
'You would laugh at some fancied absurdity, no
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COtTNTBY. 63
matter how serious or dangerous the situation,
even when tied to a mesquite tree to be burned,
perhaps, simply because you see something ab-
surd, while I see nothing to laugh at under such
"While sitting down amongst the bushes and
small trees, having been there perhaps an hour
or more, I suddenly heard a rustling noise over
to my right. Looking quickly in that direction
I could see a bunch of Apaches apparently
struggling together. They were outside the
fireli^t and I could see but dimly their outlines
as they struggled amidst the brushwood. Once
or twice I caught the faint glint of arms. All
this took place in less time than it takes to tell
it, and several shots were fired. Simultaneously
with the shooting every infernal imp, big and
little, male and female, as it seemed from the
great uproar, began yelling and whooping as
only the American Indian knows how to whoop.
Pandemoniimi was sure in evidence at that par-
ticular moment. In less than a minute after
the first shots were fired, not an Indian campfire
could be seen along the line, and only the big
dance-fire remained to lighten the impish-look-
"To realize and to fully comprehend that aw-
ful hubbub and scene, it must be seen, as words
cannot describe it. Just imagine all the women
screaming at their little ones at the top of their
voices as they scattered like so many quail into
the brush, and the screaming of the women more
than supplemented with the whoops and yells
of two or three hundred demoniacal, hideously
painted savages, all yelling or whooping for tihe
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64 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
lives of the * white skins.' Truly it was an in-
teresting scene to look upon, from a flying
machine at a good, safe elevation. That night's
scene is vivimy impressed upon my mind, and
although it is now over forty-two years since it
took place, yet I can see it to-day as plainly as
I then saw it.
"Shortly after the pandemonium had broken
loose, a half dozen young Apaches came to where
I was sitting in the brush and said to me, 'Yu-
cooshe, Apache donjudah, Apache mata,' which
translatec^ was, *Go away, the Apaches are bad
and will kUl. ' I went with them, keeping out-
side the range of firelight, and the young
Apaches forming a line behind and between me
and the howling and shooting mob. We made
a circuit and arriving at our camp, the young
fellows pointed in a certain direction and told
me to go, and to-morrow make 'the smoke' on
the top of a high hill and they would eome to it.
The young men then returned to their people. I
secured my rifle and canteen and my buckskin
sack of pinole, previously described, yet I could
not go and leave the other two, if yet alive. I
decided to make a sneak on the howling bunch,
and try to ascertain if Cooley and Dodd were
alive. I made the sneak all right without being
observed or recognized by the Apaches. As a pre-
caution I took off my hat, and, holding my red
blanket well up about my head, the sneak was
comparatively easy. All this was a risky piece
of business, or piece of foolhardiness, seeing that
the yoimg Apaches had assisted me, and pointed
out the way for my escape. But I had made up
my mind that there were not enough Apaches in
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTBY. 65
the country to make me desert my two com-
panions, if alive, and I could rescue them.
Reaching the outskirts of the mob I stood for a
few moments in the semi-obscurity and looked
for my fellows. Presently I saw Cooley in the
rear of our friendly Coyoteros, and, slightly
stooping, I made my way to him. Wifliout
speaking, I caught hold of the tall of his coat
and gave it a slight jerk. Cooley turned his
head and, at first took me to be an Apache until
I whispered: 'Get out of this.' We cautiourfy
slipped back and made our way to our camp. I
then asked after Dodd and he said, 'I haven't
seen him since the row first began, and don't
know if he is alive or not. What had we better
do?' Getting our rifles ready for instant use, my
advice was to wait a short time to see if Dodd
would show up ; that the chief of the Finals had
pledged our safety and the return of our ani-
mals, and It was best not to be too hasty ; that the
chief was for us and he must have an influence
and a following, and with our Coyoteros, a
majority was on our side. Now that Cooley
still lived it was also probable that Dodd also
was alive, and it is always best to take matters
philosophically and not allow yourself to become
'rattled' however serious the situation. There-
fore, I said to Cooley, 'If Dodd don't show up,
and if the red fiends make a break, we wiU give
them a hot reception, abandon our outfit, take
to the brush, and then it is each one for himself
and the devil or the red fiends for the unlucky
one who may be caught. '
"We had stood there, rifles in hand, for per-
haps fifteen or twenty minutes, watching the
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66 HIOTOBY OF ABIZONA.
painted imps jumping, yelling, shooting, and
altogether making themselves absurdly ridicu-
lous, causing us to wonder if we should see an-
other simrise. Presently Dodd came to us,
panting, blowing, and mad as a hornet. His
dander was up and^ cursing the Apaches for all
he could think, he snatched up his sixteen-shoot-
ing Heniy rifle, and had not Cooley caught his
arm, Dodd woiild have fired into Uie crowd of
howling savages, regardless of either friends or
enemies. The wrath of Dodd, like that of
Achilles, was finally mollified, and, taking off
his hat, he exhibited several bulletholes in it, also
as many more holes in his coat which were made
by the same means. The Apaches had made our
friend do some pretty lively dancing, at the same
time they amused themselves by shooting bullets
through his hat and coat; hence the wrath of
Dodd and the name thereafter of 'Dodd's
"The Apaches possess a grim sense of humor
and it is often displayed in an imique manner,
and had not the Apaches warned me of their in-
tention to kill us, I should have concluded that
the whole thing was done to test the courage of
the 'white ddns.' It seems, however, that quite
a lai^e number of the tribe had lost a number
of relatives in fights with the troops and others,
and they wished to have revenge by killing us,
and it was thus the rumpus started.
"That night it was decided among us to
* sleep with one eye open. ' Cooley and Dodd lay
down near the packs, but I lay down a short
distance away among some thick brush. I kept
awake as long as I could, listening to the inces-
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EXPEDITIONS INTO DJDUN COXTNTBY. 67
sant yelling of the Indians, but finally went to
sleep. Awakening early in the morning, I
looked about and saw perhaps a hundred war-
riors lying in a double circle around our camp.
They were the chief's trusted men, and, with our
Coyoteros, were placed there on guard to pre-
vent our assassination while we slept. Instantly
realizing the situation, and hearing some terrific
snoring by Cooley and Dodd, the whole matter
struck me as being a bit hiunorous, and I was
forced to laugh at it. Jumping up, I went
around to the feet of the two snoring men, and,
kicking their feet, I yelled, 'Get out of this.'
The way their blankets flew and the alacrity
Willi which they sprang to their feet with rifles
in hand, womd sure have surprised Davy
Crockett himself. My actions and those of
Cooley and Dodd caused our Indian guards to
laugh, in which Cooley and Dodd joined as soon
as uiey could get their eyes open to see and com-
prehend the situation. Both declared that my
kicking them up out of their sound sleep would
lessen the length of their lives at least five years.
"Of course we were very thankful to see the
rising sun, and Cooley said, 'I didn't expect to
see stmrise again.' About eight o'clock the
chief, Bah-dah-clah-nah, came down to our camp
to talk and laugh over the pleasant ( ?) scenes
and events of the past night. However pleas-
ant and entertaining they may have been to the
chief and his people, we held very radical views
to the contrary, and at once requested the chief
to have our animals brought in as we wished to
push on at onee to Camp McDowell. The chief
demurred to our great haste, urging us very
Go HI8T0BT OF AltlZONA.
strongly to remain for another night's enter-
tainment, and, as a further inducement for us to
tarry longer, he said more of his people would
be tjiere and a bigger dance would be given.
Cooley, being 'talkmg-man,' said: *We regret
very much the necessity which compels us to
hurry forward; otherwise we would esteem it
one of our greatest pleasures to remain another
night or for a week, to enjoy the delightful
entertainments and pleasant sensations which
their 'welcome dance* had given us. Neverthe-
less, we declined, with regrets, further hospi-
tality at this time from tiie fact that our time
was limited and we were forced to hurry on-
ward.' After listening to Cooley 'a soulful, if
not very truthful, but diplomatic harangue,
Dodd and myself then and there voted Cooley
to be the Chief Monumental Liar of the United
States, and the puny efforts of Ananias and wife
were as the simple prattle of little children com-
pared with Cooley 's easy flow of prevarications.
"The chief appeared to be satisfied with
Cooley's (truthful) statements and at once or-
dered our animals to be brought in, and we
saddled and i)acked and were on the move by ten
o'clock. To protect us while passing through
his territory, and until we reached the confines
of the Tontos, the chief sent along with us a con-
siderable number of his best warriors under a
sub-chief. Our Pinal escort travelled with ua
to the camp of a large body of Tonto warriors
under the famous chief Da-chay-ya. As before,
however, we were met by a Tonto warrior who
led us to the camp of the Tontos, but in this
camp there were no women and children, and
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COTTNTRY. 69
no signs of a 'welcome dance' as was the pro-
gram with the Finals. All the Tontos were in
their war paint and, at that time, on the war-
path. Arriving at tiie Tonto encampment, the
sub-chief of our Pinal escort formally turned us
over to the chief of the Tontos, with whom we
made camp that night. The Finals then with-
drew some distance and made camp all to them-
selves. There appeared to be a spirit of
hauteur existing between the two peoples.
*'In the earlier days, before the advent of
white settlers, and with no common enemy, the
white skins, to fight, the various tribes scrapped
one with another, as much to keep up the war
spirit, and the practice of their art of war, as
for any other purpose. At this time, August,
1869, tiie whites had been only a few years in
the country north of the Gila river. Prescott,
then but a little more than five years old, Wick-
enburg, Yuma, and Tucson, were about sM the
towns in Arizona. True, Fhoenix had been sur-
veyed and platted at this time, but where the
city now stands was covered with sagebrush
and greasewood. Therefore, the feuds between
the Apache tribes had not yet died out, hence
the apparent coolness between Final and Tonto.
"Early on the following morning the two In-
dian parties broke camp, the Finals returning
eastward and the Tontos, under Chief Da-chay-
ya, as our escort, continuing westward. Here I
wish to remark, by way of parenthesis, that
during our previous days' marches, after leav-
ing tte Pinal camp, known thereafter as
'Dodd's Dance,* that our friend Dodd had
seriously proposed that we kill any Indian who
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70 HISTORY OF ARIZONA..
met U8 with propositions of any more 'dance
"During our travels with the Tontos nothing
worthy of note occurred until we reached the
western rim of the Sierra Anchas, a wide range
of mountains. At this point we had a magnil-
cent view, the whole valley of Tonto creek lay
spread out at our feet, wiui the Mazatzal range
of mountains bordering the valley on the west,
in which are the celebrated Four Peaks. At the
southern end of the Mazatzals, near the south-
eastern base of the Four Peaks, and a short dis-
tance below the junction of Tonto Creek and the
Salt River, is now located that most wonderful
structure, the great Roosevelt Dam and
"We made a halt at the rim while the chief
made his 'peace smokes' to notify other Tontos
who might be in the intermediate section be-
tween us and Camp Reno that our parly was not
to be molested. Away off to the westward be-
yond the valley of Tonto creek, and close up to
the eastern base of the Mazatzal range, could be
dimly seen a small brown or bare spot, which the
chief pointed out and said, 'There are the sol-
diers, there your people.' It was Camp Reno.
*Tou are my friends and can go there in peace,'
said the chief. *I cannot ^o for I and my peo-
ple are even now at war with those white skins,
but my warriors over there now will not molest
you. I have signalled to them that you are
friends, and when you reach your people do not
forget your true friend, Da-chay-ya.' He also
said, 'I have desired to live in amity with the
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 71
whites, and all I asked for was the right for me
and my people to live. '
"Bid(fing good-by to Da-chay-ya and his peo-
ple, we began the descent of the precipitous side
of the Sierra Anchas. In the miles of travel
from the rim to Gamp Heno, we saw no Indians,
although plenly of the freshest sign was seen
"Gamp Reno, (long since abandoned) was
located two or three imles west of Tonto creek,
upon an open mesa that gently sloped down
toward the Tonto from the eastern base of the
Mazatzals. Upon either side of the camp were
two deep brushy ravines containing water.
These ravines run parallel to and perhaps two
hundred yards distant from the military camp,
and they afforded an excellent screen for an
enemy approaching the camp.
"After we had ascended from Tonto Greek
to the top of the mesa, the military camp was
plainly in view, probably three thousand yards
away. Our party of thirty-three, all on foot,
excepting the cautivo and us three Americans,
marched along in plain view of the camp, and
while we could see soldiers walking about, not
one of tiiem perceived our approach until we
had arrived within perhaps three or four hun-
dred yards of the camp. Suddenly an alarm
was raised and we could see the troops rushing
hither and thither, and falling into line under
arms; a skirmish line thrown out composed of
the eommandinar officer, the first sergeant, the
citizen blacksmith, and the post trader. Ob-
serving the excitement in the camp, we halted,
and told the Indians to remain where they were
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72 HISTOET OF ARIZONA.
while we three rode up to the skirmish line.
We were within forty yards of the line before
they discovered we were whites. The com-
manding officer, a Major Collins, who had been
standing pretty *^ciose* to a convenient stack of
hay, came out and shook hands, declaring he
was 'glad it was no worse, for I fully expected
an attack upon the camp. ' He appeared to be
unduly excited, but was to be excused this time
as he arose from a sick bed to repel a supposed
assault, there being no other commissioned
officer in the camp at the time. I called the
Major's attention to the two ravines and said:
'Had an attack been planned, those ravines
would have been used.' The Major admitted
the correctness of my observations, but said: 'I
am too sick to give proper consideration to any
"At the time the alarm was first given, the
tables had just been laid for dinner, and this
?robably accounts for the bad lookout; an(L
urtiiermore, the cattle herd had been attacked
only the day before, in which attack one herder
had been killed and a soldier wounded ; this, too,
no doubt, had to do with the great excitement
manifested at our approach.
"Major Collins invited us to his tent for din-
ner. All used tents, there being only one small
adobe hut which was used for ammunition. We
sat at the table, but the Major, being sick, took
to bed again. Soon after we sat down at the
table, we were a little surprised to see a lady
enter, having a baby in her arms, who laugh-
ingly remarked: 'This is a pretty country for
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EXPEDITI0N8 INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 73
a white woman, where she must be locked up in
a powderhouse to prevent capture by Indians. '
"We lay over here three days, and two of my
party had a strenuous bout with their old-time
enemy, John Barleycorn, and, as usual in all
such scraps, they were badly worsted in the
encounter. Our Apaches refused to go any fur-
ther, but would not give any reason for not car-
ing to go on to Camp McDowell, which was only
forty-five or fifty miles from Reno. The inter-
preter for the camp had told them that Mc-
Dowell was full of Pimas and Coco-Maricopas,
the hereditary enemies of all Apaches.
"Our Apaches were encamped in the ravine
on the north side of the military camp, and on
the night of our second day at Reno, the chief
asked me to go to his camp. He then told me of
his intention to start on the following morning
for their rancheria on the Carizo, and tried to
persuade me to return with them, saying: 'The
people on this side are no good ; all the Apaches
like you as a brother; let them, (Cooley and
Dodd) go on, we don't want them any more, but
you go with us to our home.* Finding I was
determined to go on to McDowell, the chief said :
'When you come back, go to the top of mountain
east of rancheria and make signal smoke, and I
will come or send others to you, but be sure to
come alone and stay by the smoke until I come
to you.' Had I been anything but the young
fool that I was, having no business at McDowell,
or anywhere else, I would have returned with
the Apaches, and in due time, have gone with
them for the 'white metal' and, even if ignorant
of its true character at the time, I woidd have
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74 HISTOBY OF ABIZONA.
known after a time. But I didn% and possibly
lost a fortune in those planchas de plata.
"Our Apaches positively refused to go on to
Camp McDowell and, on the morning of our
third day at Camp Reno, they took the trail
back to their randieria on the Carizo. In order
to anticipate Colonel Green and to help Captain
Barry out of his difficulty, we deemed it neces-
sary to proceed to McDowell. Taking advan-
tage of an escort of cavalry, under Colonel
Elger, that were going over to McDowell, we
accompanied the escort for protection, and,
without incident worthy of notice, we reached
headquarters of the southern Military District
of Arizona in safety.
"The day after our arrival at Camp Mc-
Dowell we called upon General Thos. E. Devin
and explained the situation at Carizo, and the
action of Captain Barry, with an earnest re-
quest that the Captain be as leniently dealt with
as the case would permit. The General gave us
to understand that at the proper time due con-
sideration would be given to our statements and
all extenuating circiunstances bearing upon the
matter. Suffice it to say, soon afterwards
Colonel Green's charges, specifications, etc.,
were received at headquarters, but were
promptly returned 'disapproved,' and Barry
ordered to be returned to duty.
"We remained at McDowell ten or twelve
days, and then proceeded to the Salt River,
stopping at the ranch of Captain Jack Swilling.
Here we separated, Cooley and Dodd going up
to Prescott, whilst I remained with Jack, whom
I had known some years before."
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C. E. COOLEY.
Digitized By Google
EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN COUNTRY. 75
Banta thinks the Doc Thorn mine a fable.
The C. E. Cooley mentioned above, after-
wards became one of General Crook's most re-
liable scouts. He married, according to the
Indian custom, two Apache girls, sisters, of the
Coyotero, or White Mountain tribe, and,
through his influence that tribe to a great ex-
tent, became idlies of the whites.
In 1874 Mrs. Summerhayes, in her book
"Vanished Arizona," gives the following de-
scription of Cooley's house at his ranch, not far
from Fort Apache :
"Towards night we made camp at Cooley's
ranch, and slept inside, on the floor. Cooley
was interpreter and scout, and, although he was
a white man, he had married a young Indian
girl, the daughter of one of the chiefs, and was
known as a squaw man. There seemed to be
two Indian girls at his ranch; they were both
tidy and good looking, and they prepared us a
most appetizing supper.
"The ranches had spaces for windows, cov-
ered with thin unbleached muslin (or manta as
it is always called out there), glass windows be-
ing then too great a luxury in that remote place.
There were some partitions inside the ranch, but
no doors ; and, of course, no floors except adobe.
Several half-breed children, nearly naked, stood
and gazed at us as we prepared for rest. This
was interesting and picturesque from many
standpoints perhaps, but it did not tend to
make me sleepy. I lay gazing into the fire
which was smouldering in the comer, and finally
I said in a whisper, 'Jack, which girl do you
think is Cooley's wife?'
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76 HISTORT OF ARIZONA.
'* *I don't know,' answered this cross and
tired nuin; and then added, 'Both of 'em, I
"Now, this was too awful, but I knew he did
not intend for me to ask any more questions. I
had a difficult time, in those days, reconciling
what I saw with what I had been taught was
right, and I had to sort over my ideas and deep-
rooted prejudices a good many times.
"The two pretty squaws prepared a nice
breakfast for ua, and we set out, quite refreshed,
to travel over the malapais (as the great lava-
beds in that part of the country are called)."
The two young squaws mentioned by Mrs.
Summerhayes were good cooks and house-
keepers, having learned their trade through
association with the wives of the officers at Fort
This remained Cooley's home until the time
of his death. Jim Bark, well known in Phoe-
nix, and now a resident of Mayer, Arizona, made
a visit to Cooley a few years ago, and from him
I derive the following :
The house was well built and quite well fur-
nished. The ranch had a fine ordiard of decid-
uous fruits, and besides cattie and horses,
Cooley had raised grain and other products,
which found a ready market at Fort Apache at
good prices. As far as material we^th was
concerned, he was well fixed; his children were
well educated and well cared for. His two
wives ran the house, and, it is said, to a great
extent, ran him. Bark relates the following
episode which occurred during his visit there :
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EXPEDITIONS INTO INDIAN OOUNTBY. 77
"They had some quarrel with Cooley, and to
escape ttieir vengeance he climbed upon the roof
of the building. One of the squaws threw rocks
at him for a while. Coming down after the
storm had ceased, he gave me quite a disserta-
tion upon the advantages and disadvantages of
Bark states that he, Cooley, had grown fleshy,
and during his visit Cooley received a letter
from a New York firm and read it. It amused
him to such an extent that, sitting in his chair in
the shade of a tree in front of his house, he be-
came so convulsed with laughter that he fell out
of the chair and rolled over on the groimd,
squirming with hilarity. The reason was that
the firm, from whom he had ordered a suit of
clothes, giving his measurements, replied that
they made clothes for men and not for horses.
Cooley measured somewhere about sixty inches
around the waist. He died on his ranch in the
summer of 1917.
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78 HKTORT OF ABIZONA.
Repobt op Major-Genekal Qeoboe H. Thomas
ON MHJTART AiTAIES IN ARIZONA — RePOKT
OF General Obd — General Ord's Account
OP Captain Barry's Disobedience op Or-
ders — Expense of Supplying Rations to
Troops in Arizona — Fourteen Militaby
Posts in Abizona — Desertion of Troops
— Policy op Extermination Followed by
Both Military and Citizens — Conditions
IN 1869 Described by Banta — Establish-
ment op Camp Obd, Later Known as Port
Major-General George H. Thomas, conunand-
ing the Department of the Pacific, with head-
quarters at San Francisco, in his report to the
Adjutant-General of the TTnited States Army,
under date of September 27th, 1869, made the
following reference to Arizona:
"Having performed duty in Arizona some
years past, and then getting familiar with the
topography of the country, and not having time
to make a personal inspection of my whole com-
mand, I have depended upon the report of the
inspector-general of the division, and special re-
ports of the department commander for infor-
mation, and have to report as follows: Fort
Yuma, at the junction of the Colorado and Gila
rivers, is an important post as a depot of sup-
plies for that Territory ; it is garrisoned by one
company of infantry, and reported in good con-
THE MHilTART. 79
dition. The garrisons at Tucson, Bowie, Grant,
Goodwin, McDowell, Verde, Reno, Colorado
and Mohave, I considered favorably situated for
supervision of the Indian Territory, and have
maintained them as found. Camps Willow
Grove and Wallen having become useless, the
garrisons of these posts, two companies, were
used to establish a post at Toll Gate, which com-
mands one of the passes most frequented by the
Indians in their excursions from the north to
the south. Active operations have been contin-
ued against the Indians of Arizona during the
whole summer, in which the troops displayed
great energy and perseverance, and were emin-
ently successful — 80 much so that one tribe, the
Hualpais, have sued for peace, and the chief
given himself up as a hostage for the future
good conduct of the tribe. For details of the
operations of the troops in Arizona, your atten-
tion is respectfully called to the annual report
of Brevet Major-General Ord, the Department
Commander, to be forwarded, and the report of
the inspector general of the division on Indian
Affairs, which has been forwarded direct in
obedience to instructions."
The following is the report of General Ord,
dated September 27th, 1869, referred to in the
"Sir: I have to report that during the past
year my efforts, and those of the troops in this
department, have been directed, first, to the re-
duction of the hostile bands of Indians which
have, since the country was known, infested Ari-
zona and portions of Nevada; second, to the ex-
ploration of extensive districts of which white
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80 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA.
men had little or no knowledge and which were
supposed to be the retreats of hostile bands;
third, the reduction of expenses by the evacua-
tion of posts no longer needed, either because
the country had become settled and the settlers
capable of self-protection, or because it was
found uninhabitable for whites or Indians, or
because the garrisons were too small for offen-
sive operations, and only invited roving bands
to attack the government herds and trains which
supplied the posts.
"My return of expeditions and scouts will
show the success of the troops in reducing the
hostile Apaches and kindred tribes. These
Arabs of Arizona have heretofore neither
given nor asked quarter; their hands have al-
ways been bloody, their favorite pursuit killing
and plundering, their favorite ornaments the
finger and toe-nails, the teeth, hair, and small
bones of their victims. Their homes are in the
high mountain ranges and mesas north of the
Gila, which separate its tributaries from those
of the Colorado. Some bands occupy moxm-
tains south of the Gila, and their expeditions
extend far into Mexico.
'*0n taking command of the department I
was satisfied that the few settlers and scattered
miners of Arizona were the sheep upon which
these wolves habitually preyed, and that, if that
wilderness was to be kept free from Apache
robbers and murderers, a temporizing poli<g'
would not answer; therefore I encouraged the
troops to capture and root out the Apache by
every means, and to hunt them as they woxild
wild animals. This they have done with un-
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THE MZLCTARY. 81
relenting vigor. Since my last report, over two
hundred have been killed, generally by parties
who have trailed them for days and weeks into
the moimtain recesses, over snows, among gorges
and precipices, lying in wait for them by day
and following them by night. Many villages
have been burned, large quantities of arms and
supplies of ammtmition, clothing and provisions
have been destroyed, a large number of horses
and mules have been captured, and two men,
twenty-eight women, and thirty-four children
taken prisoners ; and though we have lost quite a
number of soldiers, I think the Apaches have
discovered that they are getting the worst of it.
Some of the bands, having the fear of exter-
mination before tbeva, have sued for peace;
others, being driven to the defensive, compelled
to fight for their women and children and plim-
der, have not had much time, lately, to hunt
miners, attack settlers, and capture stock.
"There are, I think, not to exceed one thou-
sand fighting men of the Apaches left; and if
we continue as successful in reducing them as
during the last year, the result is only a question
of time. Colonel John Green, major First
United States Cavalry, in a recent scout into the
White Mountains, a country of which we know
but little, after destroying some villages, killing
a number of warriors, and destroying a large
quantity of com, etc., having heard of a village
fliirty miles north, where the Indians were re-
ported friendly, and anxious to appease the
troops, sent Captain John Barry, First United
States Cavalry, to examine the matter, and, if
he found them concerned in hostilities, to
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82 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA.
destroy them. Thus he describes the result:
'On the night of August 1, Captain Barry re-
turned witii his command, and reported that
when he reached Miguel's village, there was a
white flag flying from every hut and every
prominent point ; that the men, women and chil-
dren came out to meet them, and went to work
to cut com for their horses, and showed such a
spirit of dehght at meeting them, that the oi&-
cers united in saying that if they had fired on
them they would have been guilty of cold-
blooded murder; even my chief scout, Manuel,
who has no scruples in such matters, and whose
mind was filled with taking scalps when he left
camp, said he could not have fired on them after
what he saw.
" 'Captain Barry also foimd that the white
men had nothing but some provisions and imple-
ments, being what they represented themselves,
prospecting miners. Miguel reiterated that he
wanted to go on a reservation where he coxild be
protected, and Captain Barry repeated what I
had previously told him — ^that he must go to
Camp McDowell and see the district com-
mander. He also gave him a letter for that pur-
pose. Miguel promised to start on the foUow-
ing day, and commenced to make preparation
at once. The white men were also to accompany
him. The Apaches have but few friends, and, I
believe, no agent. Even the officers, when ap-
plied to by them for information, cannot tell
them what to do. There seems to be no settled
policy, but a general idea to kill them wherever
found. I also am a believer in that, if we go for
extermination ; but I think, and I am sustained
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THE MILITABY. 83
in my opinion by most of the officers accompany-
ing my expedition, that if Miguel and his band
were placed on a reservation properly managed,
and had a military post to protect them, they
would form a nucleus for the civilization of the
Apaches, as they seem more susceptible of it
than any tribe I have seen. I even believe that,
if the Apache is properly managed, he could be
used against the Apache, and so end the war in
a short time. Miguel said that he had soldiers,
uid would place them at my disposal whenever
I wanted them. The reservation, with a mili-
tary post, should be in the White Mountain
country, where they could raise crops and sus-
tain themselves with but little cost to the Gov-
ernment, the climate and soil being excellent for
such purpose. The only difficulty would be to
make a wagon road into that coimtry; but by-
proper exploration it might be accomplished.
If this scheme should fail, a military post in
that country would be of invaluable service in
suppressing the Indian war in Arizona. '
*'0f course the extermination policy is re-
solved upon only when every other means fail
to protect our people; and if it is possible to in-
duce the Apache to accept terms, it should be
done ; and this being the first formal proposition
for surrender from that section, General
Thomas E. Devin, commanding in Southern
Arizona, has been instructed to send Colonel
Green, with sufficient forces, again into the
White Mountain country, to visit Miguel's vil-
lage, examine the vicinity carefully with a view,
if deemed necessary, to open a road to it from
the Gila Valley or from the West ; to learn how
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84 EI8TOBY OF ABIZONA.
far the country is adapted for a healthy reser-
vation of sufficient extent to hold the friendly
Apaches and afford them a field to hunt in and
land to cultivate; and he will report on the
probable expense of establishing a post in that
vicinity; not that it is intended to increase the
number of posts in that Territory, for I think
we have too many there now.
"The earnestness with which the troops make
war on the hostile Apaches is in proportion to
the good will which is shown toward the in-
offensive or friendly Indians. Many of the bor-
der white men, especially those that have been
hunted, or lost friends or relations by them, re-
gard all Indians as vermin, to be lolled when
met; and attacks upon and mxirder of quiet
bands, who in some instances have come in to
aid in pursuit of more hostile savages, is noth-
ing tmusual in Arizona. One citizen is now in
confinement, arrested by the troops, for an at-
tempt to murder a friendly Hualapai near
Gamp Mohave ; and dozens of them are at large
now who have tried it and succeeded. These
citizens are not proceeded against by the civil
authorities of the eotmtry. Reservations, to be
at all safe from such attacks in that eotmtry
must be forbidden groxmd to all white men, save
the troops sent there to watch the Indians and
guard them, and officers of the Indian Bureau.
As an instance of the necessity of isolating
reservations, the Pimas and Maricopas, always
friendly, who cultivate the soil and render good
service with the troops as scouts in reducing the
hostile Indians, have a reservation on the Gila
river. A number of Mexicans and some few
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THE MnJTABT. 85
American squatters have settled upon portions
of it ; I am informed that the Indian agent is one
of them. As the cattle of the settlers and In-
dians will stray and be occasionally lost, and
stock break into fields, there is no good feeling
between the Indians and the settlers ; the latter
accuse the Indians of trespassing against them,
and threaten vengeance. The Indians, being
numerous, are defiant and sullen, and difficulties
of a very serious nature would have ensued had
not General Alexander, commanding the nearest
military post, interfered. The difficulties are
still pending, and the new military superin-
tendent should have authority to remove the set-
tlers, as yet not numerous.
' * The services rendered by some of the
friendly chiefs as scouts to the troops are so im-
portant and useful as to merit high commenda-
tion from commanding officers, and deserve
reward. If within the intent of the law author-
izing the employment of such scouts, I would
recommend temporary organization of com-
panies with the most useful Indian chiefs as
"The scouting expeditions in Arizona have
given us much useful information, and a few fer-
tile valleys heretofore imknown have been found.
A survey of the military reservation in Arizona
has been completed. There was an extensive
unexplored district between White Pine and the
Colorado river, which was supposed to be rich
in precious metals, and into which small pros-
pecting and other parties were venturing, so
that a proper regard for the general desire for
correct knowledge of it required that it should
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86 HISTORY OP ARIZONA.
be surveyed and mapped. I, therefore, with the
approbation of the division eommander, Gen-
eral George H. Thomas, directed an expedition
to be fitted out and an escort to be furnished,
placing the whole under Lieutenant George M.
Wheeler, United States engineer, who, assisted
by Lieutenant D. W. Loekwood, United States
engineers, and furnished with a small sum by
the Chief Engineer, General A. A. Humphreys,
is now engaged in this duty. A careful military
and scientific reconnaissance of this portion of
the great American desert, such as Lieutenant
Wheeler will make, may result in much valuable
information, which will be published as soon as
Sraeticable. Lieutenant Wheeler, when last
eard from, September 10th, had made good
progress in his explorations. One of his party
had reached the Pahranagat Valley, and another
the Meadow Valley, en route to the Colorado.
"In administering an extensive military de-
partment like this, containing over four hun-
dred and fifty thousand square miles, or greater
by about one hxmdred thousand square miles
than the original thirteen States, occupied by a
population of savages estimated at from fifty to
seventy-five thousand, garrisoned by three
thousand men, or three to every four hundred
and fifty square miles, who are scattered in
thirty posts, camps, and cantonments, many of
them only accessible at certain seasons of the
year, and after crossing extensive deserts, the
expenditures are principally due to the cost of
transporting supplies. The expense of supply-
ing rations at Camp Goodwin, one of the posts
in Arizona, and of feeding animals there, can be
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THE MILITART. 87
compared with similar expenses in San Fran-
cisco, when it is known that a barrel of good
flour is bought in San Francisco for the army
for from $1 to $5 in gold; and it has heretofore
cost, to take two hundred pounds of freight to
Camp Gk>odwin, in Arizona, about $30 in gold,
foing by land from Tuma Bepot. A barrel of
our purchased in Arizona costs, delivered at
Gamp Goodwin, about $25 in gold ; so that it has
cost the Government purchasing supplies there
or thereabouts five or six times as much to feed
the soldiers there as here, and the ration for a
horse at Camp Goodwin costs now about five
times as much as it does in San Francisco.
"There are fourteen posts in Arizona, with an
average garrison of one himdred and fifty men
each, or two thousand one hundred men. There
are in the Territory three thousand three hun-
dred horses and mules; and to maintain these
troops and animals it costs the Government, not
including fuel, quarters, medical attendance,
arms and accoutrements, ammunition, clothing,
pay of the troops and employees, or stables, at
least $4,000 per day; add the other items all tiie
more expensive, where, as in Southern Arizona,
a foot of lumber costs twenty-five cents, and the
cost to the Government for the troops in Ari-
zona is not far from $3,000,000 per annum.
"Almost the only paying busmess the white
inhabitants have in that Territory is supplying
the troops, there being as yet but few mines in
that country worked to profit; and I am in-
formed from every quarter that if the paymas-
ters and quartermasters of the army were to
stop payment in Arizona, a great majority of
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0» HISTOBX OF ABIZONA.
the white settlers would be compelled to quit it.
Hostilities are therefore kept up with a view to
protecting inhabitants most of whom are sup-
ported by the hostilities. Of course their sup-
port being derived from the presence of troops,
they are continually asking for more. There
was in Arizona, January 1, 1860, according to
the Army Kegister, not a single army post or
soldier; and there was then more travel aOToss
the southern part of the Territory than now,
more need for troops there, and more Indians.
It therefore becomes a question if this large ex-
penditure cannot be reduced by reducing the
number of troops in the country to the mini-
miun, consistent with the interest of the whole
country. For these reasons I have recom-
mended, and the division commander has ap-
proved and ordered, the concentration of troops
in Arizona at the most important posts, botii
with a view to economy and their greater
"The transportation of freight heretofore by
land from Yuma Depot to Tucson, for the sup-
ply of southern Arizona, will hereafter, (if
present arrangements answer), be dispensed
with, and supplies will be sent by water to
Guaymas, and thence to Tucson, at a saving of
nearly one-half. These and other means tt^en
to that end, it is hoped, will reduce the quarter-
master's estimates at least one-third. The ad-
ditional comforts now furnished the troops in
this department, such as better quarters, post
and company gardens, canned fruits and vege-
tables, (where vegetables cannot be raised),
have reduced the number of desertions. There
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THE MILITARY. 89
were reported as deserted last year six hundred
and ninety-four (694) men, to date this year,
one hundred and sixty-three (163) only are re-
ported, and the troops have ^own by their in-
creased energy and zeal that there is much
gratitude in tiie stomach, and that the best way
to keep the soldier is to keep him comfortable
when not in the field.
"When the troops in Arizona are concen-
trated, a portion of them can be usefully em-
ployed as parties, with engineer officers and
proper facifities, exploring the extensive district
north of the Upper Gila, and on both sides of
the Little Colorado, now comparatively un-
known, and it may be found valuable in minerals.
I recommend that €ongress be asked for an
appropriation of fifteen or twenty thousand dol-
lars and that three or four competent engineer
officers be detailed on this duty. The division
commander authorizes me to say that escorts
can be furnished them from tins department.
ShoiUd the appropriation I recommend be
granted, these exploring expeditions will give us
reliable information, now much needed, of the
country through which the thirty-fifth parallel
railroad is proposed to be built, and contribute
to the protec^on of the parties of adventurous
miners who are pushing their way into those
wilds, many of them with insufficient supplies or
means of defense, and who are not to be deterred
because others have gone there and never been
"Portions of a band of Pi-TJtes, from north-
em Arizona, who frequent the valley of north-
em California, and who, under tiie skillful
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90 HMTORT or ARIZONA.
soldiersMp of General Crook, commanding the
department of the Coliunbia, were compelled to
submit last year, have been recently troublesome
in Surprise Valley. Additional troops have
been sent there, and the matter has been, by
order of the division commander, placed under
control of the commander of tiie sub-district of
the Lakes, composed of portions of this Depart-
ment and that of the Columbia, with orders to
act in the premises, so that no serious difficulty
need be apprehended.
"In connection with the reduction of civil
employees, ordered from Washington, it was
found mmecessary to discharge many civilians
in this department, the reduction having been
already made to nearly the maximum allowed;
but I beg leave to call attention to the fact that
the duties of blacksmiths, farriers, carpenters,
wheelwrights, teamsters, guides, interpreters,
packers, and other skilled laborers, are as neces-
sary in building, wagonmaking and repairing,
shoeing, transporting freight, and other similar
duties for the army, as they are for the business
and support of our frontier towns; that our
army posts are the nucleus around which such
towns collect; and there are not mechanics or
skillful laborers in the United States willing to
enlist as soldiers and perform such duties for
sixteen dollars per month in greenbacks, when
in every village or settlement among the moun-
tains and plains such labor is worth from three
to ten dollars in gold per day. The result is, we
have not soldiers to do such work, and either
civilians must be hired to perform it for the
army, or the army posts and expeditions in the
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THE HIUTABT. 91
Indian country must be abandoned and the
troops concentrated at places where they are not
"I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
your obedient servant,
"E.O. C. OED,
"Brigadier and Brevet Major-General Com-
"Brevet Major-General E. D. TOWNSEND,
"Adjutant-General United States Army."
In the foregoing report nothing is said of
Colonel Green's order depriving Captain Barry
of hia command, and preferring charges against
him. An entirely different version of that epi-
sode is given from that given by Mr. Banta,
whose life was forfeit had Captain Barry obeyed
The policy of extermination of the Apaches
was followed by the military and the citizens of
Arizona to a great extent, up to 1870. In 1869,
after the inauguration of President Grant, a
Peace Commission was appointed. Their ac-
tivities in Arizona will be treated fully in subse-
quent pages of this history.
In 1869, while the war was pressed ruthlessly
both in the northern and southern territory
of Arizona, the exterminating policy, to some
extent, was relaxed in the northern portion of
the Territory, but it seems was relentlessly
prosecuted in the southern portion.
The following, taken from a story by Banta,
which was printed in his paper, "The Ob-
server," in St. Johns, Apache County, in the
year 1911, gives a vivid picture of conditions as
they existed prior to and during the year 1869:
92 EUETFOBT OF ARIZONA.
"That readers of 'The Observer' may better
comprehend conditions as they existed forty-two
years ago, in a country now covered with happy
homes and settlements long since unused to tiie
whoop of the cruel, bloodthirsty and savage
Apache, a country known at that time as the
*Apacheria' and unknown and unexplored by
white men. True, King S. Woolsey, with a force
of two hundred citizens, fought his way into the
Tonto Basin in the spring of 1864, but after the
celebrated 'Pinole Treaty,' was forced to fight
his way out again, and from that time down, al-
most to 1880, the country remained a terra in-
cognita. The section of which I speak, included
the whole eoimtry north of the Gila river, and
east of the Verde river; also bounded on the
north by the Little Colorado river, and on the
east by the frontier villages of western New
Mexico. These Mexican villages were subject to
Indian raids, by either Navahos or Apaches, at
any and all times down to comparatively recent
"The military, ever in advance, had estab-
lished camps at several points near the southern
and western edges of this Apacheria; in fact,
Camp Reno was located well inside the Apache
lines, being near the eastern base of the Mazat-
zal range, and perhaps two or three miles west
of Tonto Creek. This camp was garrisoned
with one company of infantry, and the camp
was almost daily hiarassed by the Tonto Apaches
imder the leadership of Chief Da-ehay-ya. The
Apaches were so numerous and hovered so
closely about the camp, that it was considered
dangerous to even wander a hundred yards from
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THE MIUTABT. 93
the military camp. If wood were needed, a de-
tachment of soldiers was sent with wagons, and
many times the wood party had to fight for their
lives. In all the country of which liiis story re-
lates, not a single white man had his habitat, nor
a settlement existed.
"Before closing these preliminary remarks, it
is necessary that I should say a few words anent
the milita^, their camps, locations and opera-
"At the time the event of which this stoiy re-
lates, the year 1869, the Territory of Arizona
was subdivided into two military districts, the
northern commanded by Brevet Brigadier Gen-
eral Frank Wheaton, with his headquarters at
Fort Whipple; the southern district, and the
one in which this story is concerned, was com-
manded by Brevet-Brigadier General Thomas
E. Devin, with headquarters at Camp McDowell.
Arizona at that time was in the Military Depart-
ment of the Pacific, commanded by Brigadier
General E. O. C. Ord. Camp Goodwin, first es-
tablished by the California Volunteers in 1864,
and named in honor of Arizona's first acting
governor — ^not the first appointed by Mr. Lin-
coln, but the first one to act— was situated about
three miles south of the Gila river, but after be-
ing occupied for a number of years, it was fin-
ally abandoned on account of its unhealthful-
ness. Camp Goodwin pertained to the southern
military district, and in 1869 was garrisoned with
several companies of the First Cavalry, besides
infantry, under the command of Colonel John
Green. The troops stationed in the Territory
in 1869 were the First and Eighth Regiments of
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M HUaXOBY OF ARIZONA.
Cavalry; also the 12th Infantry, and the 'thiev-
ing' 14th Infantry.
"Along in the year 1869, and years prior
thereto, the Apaches were exceedingly trouble-
some — their normal condition, however — and
were incessantly conunitting acts of pillage,
rapine and murder throughout almost the whole
of southern Arizona. General Devin was relia-
bly informed that many of the depredations that
were committed in various parts of southern
Arizona, and laid at the door of Cochise and
other bands of Apaches south of the Gila, were
being committed by the Apaches from the
Apacheria of the north.
"Early in July, 1869, Colonel Green, com-
manding at Camp Goodwin, received orders
from McDowell headquarters, to take all his
available force, and personally head a campaign
of 'extermination' against the Apaches in tie
mountains north of the Gila river. Pursuant to
orders, Colonel Green crossed the Gila at the
head of four troops of the first cavalry and a
small auxiliary force of friendly Apaches under
Chief Manuel. The Colonel plunged at once into
the imknown mountain fastnesses, and after
many days' clambering and climbing over almost
precipitous and worse, canyons, the command
finally encamped on the evening of July 27tli,
1860, near the junction of two mountain streams,
whidi are now known as the east and west forks
of White River, and about a quarter of a mile
west of the present Fort Apache. All along
the line of march hostiles were met with, many
of whom were killed, and more wounded. Any
stock seen by the troopers were killed, and all
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THE MnJTABT. 95
growing crops destroyed. In fact, it was a cam-
paign of retaliation — one of extermination and
"At this point Colonel Green, finding himself
in the very heart of the Apacheria, decided to
establish a camp as a working base, and named
it Camp Ord. His acts were afterward ap-
proved by the General commanding, and the
camp made permanent by a general order. That
camp is now known as Fort Apache."
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96 BISTORT OF ARIZONA.
THE MILITARY (Cantinued).
General George Stoneman Takes Command —
His Policy — The "Ring" Again — Con-
tractors' LuOT for Money Leads to War
ON Indians — Methods Employed by
Apaches — Apache Outrages — Killing of
Kennedy and Israel — Attack on I^nt
and Habpending Mining Party — Killing
OP SniRLBy — **Jeff" Davis's Experience
With Induns — Attacks on Wagon Trains
— A. P. K. Safford Appointed Gov-
ernor of the Territory — His Interview
With the "New York Herald" — Asks
That Arizona be Allowed to Raise
Volunteebs — Government Fubnishes
Arms and Ammunition for Citizen Mili-
tia — How THE Apaches Secured Arms and
Ammunition — Activities of Military —
LmuT.-CoLONEL Sanpord's Expedition —
— Lieutenant Cushino's ExpEromoN —
Lieutenant Graham's Expedftion — Cap-
tain William Cry's Expedition,
About the middle of the year 1870, General
George Stoneman was assigned to the command
of Arizona, witii headquarters at Port Whipple,
and assumed command in July of that year.
General Stoneman was a general in the Civil
War and, as a cavalry officer, left a distinguished
record. The task assigned to him in Arizona
was a difficult one. The people, as we have
seen, were aroused to frenzy and demanded the
GENERAL UEORUK 8T0XEMAX.
Digitized By Google
id By Google
THE MnJTABT. 97
immediate amuhilation or capture of the
Apaches, and because speedy relief did not
follow his appointment, he was censured to
even a greater degree Hi&q his predecessors
had been. Arizonans were impatient and could
not await any natural solution of the Apache
war, but demanded that victory should come
at once. Stoneman went about his work care-
fully. Arizona at that time was not fully
explored. FuUy one-third of the Territory was,
and always had been in the hands of the
Apaches, and, so far as the general public was
concerned, was a terra incognita. Stoneman
was accused of spending too much time in the
details of establishing new posts, and the im-
provement of old ones, the huilding of roads, etc.
Consequently, the "red tape" business of mili-
tary circles received a liberal share of abuse.
While this popular outcry against the General
in command of Arizona was going on in the
Territory, in the East a sympathetic feeling was
gaining groxmd that demanded the use of pacific
measures with the Indians, and Stoneman was
censured for being too severe in attacking all
Apaches for the offenses of the few. However,
it must be said that much of his policy was good
and finally led to a solution of the Indian
prohlems. He believed by furnishing rations
and blankets to a few friendly Indians, it would
induce others to come in and so gradually lessen
the work of subduing them. He believed also
in placing them upon reservations, which was
following Mason's idea, that putting them to
work raising com was better than keeping
them on the warpath, raising scalps. He be-
96 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
lieved that they should be tau^t to earn their
own living, but when this plan was attempted it
was denounced by another class who cared not
for blood or treasure. Contractors had much to
say and pulled the wires to a great extent. If
the Indians did work to maintain themselves, it
lessened the contractors' chances of making an
enormous amount of money out of their con-
tracts, as many of them did. This element was
strong and the "ring" was laboring to defraud
the poor natives out of what the Government
gave them. To be at the head of an Indian
agency was a lucrative position, although the
s^ary was small. The contractors' "ring"
reached from Tucson to Washington, and in-
cluded many men who held responsible positions.
These men came to Arizona to make money in the
quickest way possible, and that quickest way was
to defraud the Government and the Indians.
Says Fish : "Of all the contractors of early days
it is hardly possible to find one who remained in
the Territory. As soon as they made their
money, they went East or to San Francisco to
live. Not one of this patriotic fraternity cared a
fig for Arizona. The people were taught to op-
pose agencies where the Apaches worked and
were fed. They feared that it would reduce the
military force for one thing, and that it would
suspend campaigns and lead to an inactive state
of war. What they wanted was a war of exter-
mination. It was under this state of feeling that
the Camp Grant massacre was perpetrated,"
an account of which has been given in a previous
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THE MIIJTABY. 99
"When the Indians encountered Americans
and American troops they soon discovered that
they had a different foe to deal with than the
Mexicans. In tracing the adventures of differ-
ent military bands and citizen nulitia who, aided
by the friendly Indians, time and again under-
took to dislodge the Apaches from their last
fastnesses in the Santa Rita and northern
ranges, one is compelled to award the Apaches
the palm of bravery in defense of their nomes
and the treasures inherited from their fathers.
Very few of the warlike tribes were at peace
with the Americans at this time. It is stated
that at Camp Keno Da-chay-ya's band of Tontos
and some others were peaceable and doing some
work, but often those who pretended to be
friendly were harboring and feeding the hostiles.
John T. Dennis, who lived near the site of the
present waterworks of Phoenix, lost a large
number of cattle and horses through a raid of
the Yavapai Apaches, and these raiders were
probably aided by some who pretended to be
In the winter of 1870 and spring of 1871, the
Apaches, probably by agreement, resorted to the
tactics of making attacks simultaneously in dif-
ferent places at great distances apart, for the
purpose of disconcerting their enemies, wearing
them out and confusing them in their movements.
They dared not meet the troops in battle, even
where they had the advantage, but resorted to a
Fabian policy. The Apaches, as we have seen,
would often crawl up to the very edge of a fort,
and kill a sentinel, a herder or a wagoner with
a bow and arrow, which made no noise, and their
100 HISTORY OF AfilZONA.
presence would not be known until the body of
their victim was discovered. This mode of war-
fare kept the soldiers and settlers in constant
alarm, for they lost many of tiieir mmibers
without even seeing or hearing the enemy.
Murders were becoming frequent and the In-
dians left no trail for their enemy to pursue.
Matters were approaching a state as discourag-
ing as that cast over the Territory when the
troops vacated it some ten years before at the
outbreak of the Civil War.
From Bourke's "On the Border with Crook,"
Hamilton's "Resources of Arizona," and Hin-
ton's "Handbook of Arizona," I condense the
following stories of Apache outrages, which
show the condition of Arizona at this time :
In the spring of 1870 Kennedy and Israel
owned a ranch about a mile below old Camp
Grant on the San Pedro. They had gone into
Tucson to obtain laborers to work on their ranch,
and had hired a number of Mexicans. The
party, consisting of about thirty, started for the
ranch. Just after they left the Canyon del Oro
they were attacked by about forty Apaches.
Kennedy and Israel were both shot, Israel dying
on the spot, but Kennedy, although badly
wounded, succeeded in crawling a short dis-
tance from the camp. Most of the party suc-
ceeded in reaching some sheltering rocks and
escaped from the Indians. The Indians plun-
dered the wagons and set fire to them. One of
the Mexicans, although badly wounded, suc-
ceeded in reaching Camp Grant where he gave
the alarm, telling the story of the massacre.
The troops were immediately sent out to the
THE MILITABT. 101
scene of the tragedy and reached the place a lit-
tle before daylight They found Kennedy, shot
in the breast with an arrow, perfectly rational,
but suffering terribly. He stated that at the
time of the attack he jumped upon a mule and
was making good his escape when he was shot by
an Indian. The mule was also shot, but Ken-
nedy got far enough from the camp to avoid the
Indians, and then laid down. He had broken
the arrow off trying to pull it out. He was
taken to the camp but died shortly after reach-
ing there. A company under the conunand of
Lieut. Howard B. Gushing started upon the
trail of the Indians who had a considerable start
of the troops, something over a day. One thing
occurred which materially aided the purauers.
Among the things taken by the Indians was a
box of patent medicine. The Indians, blinking
it was whiskey, drank quite freely of it The
pursuers soon discovered that the medicine had
affected them as the trail showed where they
had staggered along, running against trees,
bushes and cacti. The troops followed for sev-
eral days, and finally succeeded in overtaking
and surprising them one morning before day-
light. The soldiers raised a terrific yell and
poured a volley into the Indians which laid sev-
eral low. The Apaches made for some rocks,
but were soon driven from their shelter, many
of them being killed and many being taken pris-
oners. The soldiers had followed them to the
northwest, the Apaches making for the Tonto
country. Although taken by surprise many of
the Indians mumged to effect their escape, the
prisoners taken being mostly squaws.
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1(^ HISTOBT OF ARIZOXA.
In the summer of 1870 a party, from the
Gomstock mines of Nevada, fitted out by Lent £
Harpeudiug of San Francisco, was on its way
to Fort Bowie for the purpose of examining
the mines in that vicinity which had lately
been discovered and were attracting consider-
able attention, aa they were reported to be
extremely rich. The party passed Maricopa
WeUs and all seemed to be going nicely. No
signs of Indians had been seen, but, suddenly
the party was surprised and attacked by the
noted Cochise and his band. Many of the com-
pany made their escape in various conditions,
but as the day was hot and most of them had
little on but their underclothes, they arrived at
Camp Grant in sad plight. Running through
the brush and prickly pears had almost stripped
them of what they originally wore, and some of
them were badly wounded besides. It was the
old story; they had seen no Indians and sus-
pected no danger. Lieutenant Gushing, with
a company, left Camp Grant in pursuit of
the hostiles, whom they followed for several
days, going over the ground where the city
of Globe stands to-day. They overtook a part
of the Indians and in trying to run down two of
them, they had one man killed. They also lost
an animal or two and killed one or perhaps two,
Indians. The hardships of the trip over the
moimtains were such that both men and animals
were about exhausted on their return to camp.
In the north tiie Indians were not idle. In
the summer of 1870 a Lynx Creek miner, named
Shirley, while himting, went to a spring for a
drink and was captured by the Indians. Being
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THE MILITABY. 103
missed, his friends searched for him and foimd
his trail to the spring and saw where he had been
surrounded and taken prisoner. All traces of
him from that spot were lost, but a few years
afterwards, in the Black Hills, the skeleton of a
man was found tied by withes to a tree, head
down, and the remains of a fire which had been
built under Ms head were still visible. It was
reasonably certain that the bones were those of
the unfortunate Shirley, who was so tortured to
C. Davis, better known as *'Jeff" Davis, had
a lively experience. In those days he lived on
a lonely ranch near the head of ihe Hassayampa
and was engaged in farming and stock raising.
The latter pursuit, however, was not a success,
for whenever he had accumulated a few head of
stock, the Indians would confiscate them.
"Jeff" was a great hunter and on one of his ex-
peditions he came upon a band of Indians in
the heavy pine timber. Stepping behind a tree
he waited until the foremost savage got within
range, when his trusty rifle rang out and the In-
dian fell to rise no more. The astonished red-
skins looked around to see whence the attack
came, and ere they could recover themselves, two
more bit the dust. The remainder fled panic
stricken, "Jeff" shooting as long as one was in
In 1870 Stephens, Weaver, and some others,
were on their way to Salt River, and a Mr.
Hanna was on his way north with a load of grain
for Prescott. They camped on the Agua Fria,
twenty miles north of Phoenix, and had not
separated long when the Indians attacked Hanna
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104 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA.
and destroyed Ids train. It was the same band
of Indians, no doubt, that massacred Major
Sniveley and his party, and also captured a
wagon and team out of Crete Bryan's train, be-
sides committing numerous other depredations.
A. O. Noyes had a sawmill twelve miles from
Prescott, where he cut a large quantity of lum-
ber. It is stated that on his books were crosses
against the names of over three himdred men
with whom he had dealings, who had been
killed by the Indians. During the vears 1868,
1869, 1870 and 1871, Arizona and her people
suffered the most.
General Stoneman, as has been stated, as-
sumed command in Arizona about the middle
of the year 1870, and was succeeded by General
Crook in June, 1871. General Stoneman 's ten-
ure of office, liie that of many of his predeces-
sors, was of short duration, but he was very ac-
tive. The expeditions which he organized, in
some of which Governor Safford took part, ex-
plored the entire Apache country much of which,
up to that time, had been unexplored by the
whites. The combats of the Federal forces un-
der his command, were discouraging to the
hostiles. Through him a truce was declared be-
tween the Mohaves, the Wallapais, the Tavapais,
and the Apache-Timaas, on the Colorado.
A. P. K. Safford, of Nevada, was appointed
Governor of the Territory of Arizona by Presi-
dent Grant and took office in April, 1869.
After spending a short time in the Territory,
and familiari^g himself with conditions, he
left for the East. The "Miner," under date
of February 12th, 1870, has tiie following:
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THE MILITABX. 105
"In an interview with the 'New York Herald,'
Governor Safford said that on the first of Janu-
ary we had an army of fifteen hundred men,
while the Apaches numbered over twenty thou-
sand." (If this is meant to be twenty thousand
warriors it is evidently incorrect, for the entire
population of the Apaches at that time did not
niunber twenty thousand; probably two thou-
sand warriors were all they could muster).
"There are only fifteen or twenty military posts
throughout the Territory. We need hardly add
that the force is barely sufficient to carry on
even a defensive warfare, while the property of
the inhabituits is some distance from tlie posts
and is constantly in immediate danger. The
Apaches want no peace whatever. Time after
time have we tried to teach them agricultural
pursuits and change their mode of esastenee but
scarcely had they been courteously received when
some daring outrage would be committed, after
which they would fly to their strongholds in the
thickly wooded forests. Plunder is their ruling
l)assionj and they follow it with a will, and it is
almost impossible to get at them. In reply to a
question as to what military force would be
needed, Governor Safford said about three
regiments of cavalry and one thousand infan-
try; that it was the opinion of military men that
such a force would, within a year, eradicate the
" 'Reporter: 'Under the circumstances, what
would you recommend as a proper course to be
" 'Governor S afford: 'As a matter of econ-
omy, to say nothing of humanity, I think the
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106 HISTOHY OF ABIZOMA.
Government should expend a sufficient siun to
secure a permanent peace. Such a course would
induce immigration. Surely, if you cannot pro-
tect yourselves you cannot protect the country.
I am firmly convinced that the policy which is
now being pursued by the Government will never
tend to develop the country."
"He goes on to say that he does not believe in
extermination, for ihe Indians have their rights,
but the inhabitants of the Territory have also
their rights, among which is peace. There are
some peaceable tribes, including the Pimas,
Fapagoes, Maricopas, Mohaves and Yumas, al-
ways on good terms with the inhabitants, and
they prosecute their agricultural labors with
earnestness and honesty, but it is easy to be
seen that over a Territory, three times as large
as the State of New York, some sufficient force
is requisite in order to protect the peaceably
One of the first acts of Governor Safford was
the writing of a letter to General Thomas, then
in command of the Department, asking that
Arizona be allowed to raise volunteer troops for
service against the Indians, which had, as we
have seen, been recommended by both General
Halleck and General McDowell. The manner in
which this eommimication was received by the
military authorities is shown in the following
proclamation by the Governor:
"To All Whom It May Concern:
"Whereas, the constant depredations and
uniform successes of the Apache Indians in
murder and pillage, require courage and sacri-
fices by all our citizens, or the Territory will
THE MIUTABT. 107
continue to be overnm, our fair fields des-
olated, and our people driven out or extermin-
ated; our lives and property, and the safety of
our homes and firesides depend, to a great ex-
tent, upon our own exertions. If we help our-
selves, the Government will be stimulated to
more effectually help us. I know we have al-
ready lost many of our bravest and best; I also
know that our people have been impoverished
by constant robbery, and that few can even ill-
afford to make additional sacrifices, but, on the
other hand, if we continue to struggle and fight
on in common, we may hope to soon witness the
complete subjugation of our relentless foe, and
thereafter possess in peace a Territory unsur-
passed in leading resources and salubrity of
"Whereas, moved by these positive convic-
tions, on the 31st day" of August, 1869, I ad-
dressed a communication to Major-Qeneral
George H. Thomas, then commanding the Mili-
tary Division of the Pacific, requesting rations,
arms and ammunition for three companies of
citizen volunteers, which communication was re-
ferred to the General of the United States Army
at Washington, and in reply the following cir-
cular was issued :
"•HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF
" *San Francisco, November 3, 1869.
" 'CIRCULAR No. 20.
" 'In answer to application to the General
Commanding the Army for authority to furnish
arms, ammunition and rations to three com-
108 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
panies of Tolxmteers, serring against the Indians
in Arizona, the following reply is received :
" 'Whenever the commanding officer of an
organized hody of troops in Arizona is moving
against hostile Indians, there is no objection to
his taking along such citizens as obey his orders
and assist him with their arms. This is the best
way for the people to aid the military.
" 'Very respectfully your obedient servant,
" 'E. D. TOWNSEND,
*' 'Adjutant General.' "
" 'Whenever armed citizens choose to join a
command moving against hostile Indians, they
win be furnished with rations, and, if necessary,
with ammunition, but nothing more.
" 'By Order of Major-General THO MAS,
" 'WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE,
" 'Asst. Adjutant General.
' ' ' Headquarters Military Division of the Pacific,
" 'San Francisco. Nov. 1, 1869.
" *By Command of Brevt. Maj.-Genl. ORD,
" 'JOHN P. SHERBURNE,
" *Asst Adjutant General.
" 'Brevt. Lieut-Col. U. S. Army, A. A. A. G.'
"Whereas, the military force within the Ter-
ritory is inadequate to cajry on an a^ressively
destructive war against the Apaches, or to in-
sure protection to life and property, even in the
most populous settlements :
"NOW, THEREFORE, the Government of
the United States having furnished for the
THE MILXTABT. 109
use of our citizens 744 improved breach loading
guns, with ample ammmution, I, A. P. K. Saf-
lord. Governor of the Territory of Arizona, and
Commander-in-Chief of the militia thereof, call
upon every able-bodied man, subject to militaiT-
duty, to immediately aid in organizing the mili-
tia in accordance with law ana with Sie recom-
mendations of my proclamation of October 18th,
1869, in order that the arms may be distributed,
and the militia force prepared for active service
in the field, and for co-operation with the regu-
"Given under my hand and the seal of the
Territory, at Tucson, this second day of May,
A. D. 1870.
"A. P. K. SAFPORD.
"By the Governor:
"Secretary of the Territory.
" (Seal) "By THOS. E. McCAFFREY,
From the foregoing it will be seen that al-
though the General Government refused the
Governor's request for authority to raise volun-
teer troops, it was in favor of establishing a
Territorial Militia, and furnished arms for that
In the "Miner," under date of March 26th,
1870, I find the following:
"Governor Safford, according to a dispatch to
the 'San Francisco Chronicle,' obtained the con-
sent of the Senate Committee on Military Af-
fairs, to recommend the raising of two volunteer
regiments in Arizona for service against the In-
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110 HISTOET OF ABIZONA.
It is uimeeessary to say that authority was
never given to raise these volunteer regiments.
It was a mystery at that time as to where the
Apaches got their ammunition and guns. Of
course they captured a great many guns, but not
sufficient to account for the number of which
they were possessed during this trying period.
Many supposed that they were supplied by the
Moqui Indians, as they were known to be con-
stantly trading with the hoatiles. The follow-
ing official commimication bearing upon this
subject, was published in the "Miner" of July
"Fort Wingate, New Mexico,
"July 2, 1870.
"To Brevet Major General George F. Wheaton,
"Commanding the Northern District of
"Port Whipple, Arizona.
"Your commimication of the 10th of May,
1870, is at hand and I found it at Fort Defiance,
Arizona, on my return from the Moqui Villages,
where I took station on the 9th day of May last.
The Moqui Indians have been in the habit
of visiting Preseott and Fort Whipple, Arizona,
from Oraibi, one of the Moqui villages under my
charge. No doubt exists in my mind that the
Oraibi trade more or less with different bands of
the Apaches, as do several of the other villages,
but not to so great an extent. During my stay
I talked to them of the bad policy they were pur-
suing and its probable effects if not discon-
tinued, but as they are situated in a remote land
and as liiey are but Indians, I doubt if any re-
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THE MILITAEY. Ill
monstrance I could make would have any effect.
However, I made all the villages promise to treat
hostile Apaches as their enemies, as well as ours,
threatening a discontinuance of Governmental
assistance, and the arrest and trial of the chief
who allowed any further trading with any of the
Apaches. I expect soon to make another visit
to the Moqui villages for the purpose of vaccin-
ating all their inhabitants and relating the con-
tents of your letter to them. It would be
impracticable to get any Moquis to act as scouts
as they are lazy, cowardly, and have their grow-
ing crops to attend to. I will mention the mat-
ter to the chiefe and send an Indian to Prescott
with such information in regard to the matter as
I can collect
"Very respectfully your obedient servant,
"A. L. PALMER,
"Captain U.S. A.
"Special Agent for Moqui Indians,
The following is General Order No. 9, show-
ing the activities of the military at that time :
"Headquarters Department of Arizona,
"August 2, ief70.
"GENERAL ORDER NUMBER 9.
"Following summary of successful operations
against the Indians in this Department during
the past three months is published for general
information. Other scouts have been made
creditable alike to officers and men engaged, but
not having encountered Indians, no result other
than scouting and acquiring a topographical
112 HISTOBY OP AKIZONA.
knowledge of the country, although fecial men-
tion of these are not made.
"Lieutenant-Colonel G. B. Sanford left Gamp
McDowell in the latter part of April, with an
expedition consisting of Troop E, First Cavalry,
Lieutenant Sherman; Troop B, 3d Cavahy,
Captain Meinhold and Lieutenant Smith ; Com-
pany A, 2l8t Infantry, Brevet-Major Collins,
five officers and eighty men, and moved to Pinal
creek where he established a scouting camp. The
expedition remained out over seventy days, and
marched over five hundred miles. The follow-
ing is a brief summary of the principal events:
"The command moved down Tonto Creek and
up the Salt River and across to the Pinal Creek,
where a large field of wheat was discovered and
destroyed. On the 30th of April, Brevet-Major
Collins was detached with a portion of the com-
mand, consisting of Lieut. Smith, 3rd Cavalry,
and twenty-five men from E Troop, 1st Cavalry;
twenty-five men from B Troop, 3rd Cavalry;
three men of Company A, 2l8t Infantry, with
citizen Murphy as a guide. Moving in an east-
erly direction and striking a trail, he followed
it for eig^t miles and came upon a rancheria
where a large quantity of mescal seeds was
foimd and destroyed, the Indians having aban-
doned it but a few hours before its discovery.
Pushing on eight miles further, he charged and
succeeded in killing nine and capturing four,
and destroying large quantities of mescal,
blankets, seeds, etc. On returning to where he
struck the first rancheria he discovered three
Indians, and succeeded in killing two. He then
returned to camp upon Pinal Creek, having
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THE MHJTABT. 113
been out twenty-four hours, marching forty-five
miles, and succeeding in killing eleven Indians
and capturing four, besides destroying a large
amount of property of great value to the
*'The horses of B Troop, 3rd Cavalry, being
in bad condition and the infantry having been
constantly on the march. Colonel Smith replaced
B Troop vrith E Troop, 3rd Cavalry, Captain
Sutorius ; and Co. A, vritii Co. G, of tiie 21st In-
fantry, laeutenant J. M. Poss, one hundred and
ten men in all, including E Troop, 1st Cavalry,
which was not relieved. On the 21st, near Can-
yon Creek, for the purpose of moving vrith great
rapidity, the pack train was placed in a secure
position and left in charge of Lieutenant Poss
with a guard of fifty men.
"Colonel Sanford started on the 25th vrith
part of his command, and moved in an easterly
direction towards the Black Mesa. About day-
light on crossing the Aurora Colorado, evi-
dence was discovered of the Apaches being pres-
ent in large numbers, also com fields, etc. Just
before sunrise the command entered a large
fertile valley bordering a beautiful stream of
water, and almost immediately discovered a
rancheria. The command was at once deployed
and ordered to charge, which they did with a
will. Other rancherias were found in various
directions, and the men scattered in pursuit.
About 10 A. M., the command was reimited,
when about twenty-one Indians were found to
have been killed, and twelve prisoners taken,
also tiiree horses and three mules cwtured.
Large quantities of articles valuable to Indians
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114 HISTORr OF AltlZONA.
were destroyed. The valleys for miles were
planted with com. The command then re-
turned, scouting through Turkey Valley, across
Sombrero Butte, Salt River, Rio Knto, and
Tonto Creek, the result of the expedition being
as follows :
"Apaches killed, 33. Captured 16 animals,
horses 3, mules 3, besides having destroyed large
fields of wheat and com, and nimierous other
things of value to the Indians. In the ranch-
erias on the Chevelon the scalp of a white man
was found, and numerous articles which had
been taken from citizens and volimteers.
"On the 29th of May, Lieutenant Cushing,
3d Cavalry, with Lieutenant Smith, 3rd Cav-
alry, fourteen men of B, and twenty of F,
troops, 3d Cavalry, and thirty men of K Troop,
Ist Cavalry, started in pursuit of a band of
Indians who had attacked and captured a wagon
train and killed some citizens near Canyon del
Oro, on the road between Tucson and Camp
Grant. Having discovered the trail, it was fol-
lowed for a distance of about a hundred and
seventy miles, when, in the afternoon of the
4th of June, having reached the top of the
Apache mountains, discovered signs of being
in their vicinity. The command was withdrawn
down the eastern slope of the moimtains into
camp without having been discovered. At mid-
night the command moved towards the point
where the campfires were seen, crossing the
summit and moving down the western slope
within about three miles of the rancherias,
where the conmiand was divided, Lieutenant
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THE MIUTABT. 115
Gushiiig leading the direct attack, and Lieu<
tenant Smith moving on the flank. At day-
light on the morning of the 5th, the attack was
made. In thirty minutes the rancherias were
struck by Lieutenant Cuahing's party, and the
Indians, taken by surprise, ran down a canyon,
where they w^re met by Lieutenant Smith and
his party, and many kUled. The Indians scat-
tered in every direction, thirty being wounded
in the immediate vicinity. Many hostiles were
reported as killed by the men and two guides.
The rugged nature of the ground where the
rancherias were situated made it more than
probable that many Indians were killed which
were not seen by the commanding officers.
Large quantities of prepared mescal and prop-
erty, taken from the captured Indians, were de-
stroyed, also two mules recaptured, the others
having been killed.
"Lieutenant Gushing reports that the men
behaved throughout in a manner worthy of the
highest commendation, particularly recommend-
ing to the attention of the Deparlxnent Com-
mander Sergeants Warfield of the 3d Cavalry,
and Whooten of the 1st Cavalry, and guides
Manuel and Oscar Hutton.
"These expeditions were made pursuant to
instructions from Colonel Cogswell, command-
ing tlie subdistrict of Southern Arizona; and
he reports them as having been in every way
"On the 3rd of June Lieutenant Graham,
with fourteen men of M Troop, 3rd Cavalry,
started in pursuit of a band of tidians who had
driven ofE a herd of cattle from the immediate
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116 HiaroBY OF abizona.
vicinity of Fort Whipple. Lieutenant Graham
started without waiting to saddle, and pushed
them to such an extent that they abandoned, the
herd, except three which they had killed, which
he recovered, and killed two Indians.
"Expedition mider the command of Captain
WUliam Ory, 3rd Cavalry, consisting of lieu-
tenant Cra^ebaugh, 3rd Cavalry, acting as as-
sistant sergeant, and thirty-five enlist^ men
of Troops A, C, L, and M, 3rd Cavalry, left
Camp Verde on the 27th of May, 1870, with
instructions to locate a practicable wagon road
from Camp Verde to the new post in the White
Mountains, and to the mouth of Cottonwood
Fork on the Colorado Cbiquito. Captain Ory
returned on the 27th of June, having been suc-
cessful in finding a practicable road to both
points indicated. In one of the several engage-
ments with the Indians, the command killed
one and captured seven, having one sergeant
and two privates wounded in me attack. The
commanding officers convey their thanks to the
officers and men engaged in the above operation
for the energy and perseverance displayed. By
such exertions they not only reflect credit on
themselves but on the regiments to which they
"By command of Brevet ]tfajor General
"E. W. STONE,
"B. L. COUilNS, 17. S. A.,
"Acting Assistant Adjutant Genend.'*
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OircaiQES BY INDIANS. 117
outbaqes by indians.
"Miner" £^itobial Bescribino Trip Through
Indian Country — Interviews Between
General Stoneman and Indians —
"Mineb" Prints Petition to President
With List of Three Hundred and One
Persons Killed by Indians in Seven Years.
On the 15th of October, 1870, the "Miner"
had an editorial written by John Marion, which
"On a trip through Arizona the Indians had
not changed much since last we saw them in
1866, but we missed some familiar faces, and
as the members of the tribes could give no
straight accounts of their whereabouts, the con-
clusion forced itself upon us that they had fallen
while raiding upon the whites. (This is from
Camp Thomas.) The supposition was that all
the Indians around the post were Coyotero
Apaches, and it is probably correct. We eir-
cmated about the post considerably during the
evening of our first day there and gleaned some
facts regarding our red brother and the coun-
try, the relation of which may prove inter-
esting to our readers. Our guide, who ap-
peared to be well posted, assured us that the Coy-
otero band or tribe numbered nearly six thou-
sand souls, fifteen hundred of whom might be
classed as warriors, which we think is an over
estimate. They have four chiefs, the head one
being Seskalthesala, whose chieftainship came
118 HI9T0RX OF ARIZONA.
down to him. His ancestors were Pedro Miguel
and Chiquita Oapitania. He has but one eye but
manages to see clearer with that than do many of
his brother chiefs with their two eyes. In a word,
he is by far the shrewdest, most able Indian in
the tribe. The Coyoteros profess to be at peace
with the whites, but those who know them best
look upon such profession as a good joke.
SeskaKliesala and his followers have, for years,
been friendly with us, not for any love they
have for us, but for motives of policy, and no
truer idea of the sentiments of the tribe can
be given than the fact that Seskalthesala, whom
they once reverenced and styled ' Capitania
Grande,' has sunk into insign^cance and dis-
repute among them. Yet we have some faith
in the peaceable professions of the remaining
chiefs, and believe that we can ally them to us
by treating them squarely and properly, which
is by keeping a respectable number of troops
in their country, assisting them to raise crops,
furnishing them with medicine, and seeing that
they stay at home and do not steal away on
exjiieditions. When all this is done the Coyo-
teros may act honestly. Their country is a
delightful one, and it is said they are passion-
ately fond of it. Go where you will through
it and you will find plenty of game, grass, tim-
ber, and water, with sufficient agricultural lands
to produce food for ten thousand people. They
know how to raise com, wheat, and vegetables,
at least the women do, and of late years they
have had particular luck with their crops and
have raised enough com and fodder to sell to
the posts. We Imow it to be the fixed opinion
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OTTTRAGES BY INDIANS. 119
of Arizonans that the Apache cannot be tamed,
as proper measures for doing so have never
been tfUien, but it may be that the opportunity
will soon be here. We hope so at all events,
and it is cheaper by far for the eoimtry to
further their civilization than it is to fight them,
which latter mode of dealing with them has, so
far, proven an expensive way of subduing them.
The Goyoteros speak the same language as
their friends the Pinalenos and Tontos, and
perhaps the Apadie-Mohaves, which latter tribe
IS now normally at peace with us. All being
Apaches, they visit one another, intermarry, and
get along together, so that it looks ridiculous
to be at peace with one clan and allow them
to become acquainted with our ways and means,
while fighting tiieir friends and brothers. Al-
though the Goyoteros say the other clans are
anxious to make peace with us, the recent mur-
ders and robberies committed by them do not
look much like it. All Apaches are on good
terms with the Zuni and Hoqui Indians, and
a brisk trade is kept up among them. On the
contrary, the powerful Navaho tribe, once part
and parcel of the Apache nation, and still speak-
ing the same language, are deadly foes to the
Apaches, killing them whenever and wherever
they can and robbing them at every opportunity.
The Navahos are also the scourge of the Moquis
and Zunis, and, being brave Indians, all others
are afraid of them. But a little while ago a
party of tliese King Robbers killed a Coyotero
and stole his horse, and soon after cut down the
wheat which the poor Zunis were growing, and
packed it away with them. The Goyoteros,
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120 BISTORT OF ABIZONA.
male and female, are a hardy, good looking, in-
telligent race of Indians. The women are noted
for their virtue and industry. The men spend
their time in gambling and lying aroimd, when
not hunting or stealing. They manufacture
from buck^dn very good monte cards, a pack
of which was secured by Dr. Wirts. They are
exceedingly suspicious, superstitious and re-
ligious, consequently have great faitii in and
reverence for their medicine men. If memory
serves us right, they deposit their dead in cav-
erns with all their personal effects. We would
be delighted to find out something about ova
near and very dear neighbors, the Pinalenos and
Tontos, but only heard that the Pinalenos could,
perhaps, muster fifteen himdred warriors,
which, if true, is better for us, for they are a
villainous set of robbers and murderers.
"The next morning the sim shone brightly
upon the camp, and we awoke with the first tap
of the drum, ate a hearty breakfast, and started
down the river to look for a new site for a
post, that is, Colonel Stoneman, Major Cogs-
well, Major Qreen, Captain Smith, and all tiie
doctors went for that purpose and we accom-
panied them so as to be on hand to record any
incident that might occur, for there was a steep
canyon in front of the site whose depth had to
be determined, and in doing it some of the offi-
cers might fall down and break their necks.
The new site gave entire satisfaction to all, and
Colonel Stoneman accepted it for the future
home of his braves. It is on a high mesa a hun-
dred feet above the level of the stream, and
cannot be other thail a healthy location. An
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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 121
I ndian powwow was to take place this forenoon,
and when our party got back to camp, many
Indians were squatted under the trees near
Colonel Stoneman's tent, anxious to shake hands
with him and eager to talk in their smooth, wild
dialect. After the usual presentations were
made, Mr. Miguel took the floor and addressed
himself to Chairman Stoneman, saying in sub-
stance that he was glad to see him; that Ood
made man different, the white man he made
ridi and tiie red man he made poor, which was
all a mistake on Mr. Miguel's part, but he con-
tinued in regard to where he had made peace
with Colonel Green, and had been a good man
*'Seskalthesala spoke next. He commenced
by saying that he had much to say and was going
to say it, which remark made us feel uneasy
for we were anxious to get on the road and strike
on, but he continued and we were forced to listen
to the whole speech. The veins in his neck
swelled until they were as large as a man's
finger; his mouth opened, and he said he had
heard a good deal about Stoneman, and was
glad to see him. God had brought them together
to smoke in peace, (a gentle hint for some cigar-
ettes which were immediately furnished and
passed around), and what he had said or might
say would be written on stone and he thought
it would last. Of course this was merely a
figure of speech, for neither the old fellow nor
any of his tribe understood the art of writing
on stone or anything else. Then in token of
his love for the rations of beef that had been
given to him, he said that he was always glad
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122 HI8T0BT OF AfilZONA.
to get to eat meat ; that snow would soon come
and his people needed clothing. Once they
were rich in horses, mules, asses, and cattle, and
could trade with the Zunis for everything they
needed, powder and lead included. Now they
were poor, the soldiers and the frosts having de-
stroyed their crops, and they did not even have
powder and lead to kill game with.
*' Pedro, who appeared in a green suit of
manta, commenced in a hegging strain. His
people wanted more rations, guns, powder, lead,
and clothing. He declaimed against the Nav-
ahos, and ordered them kept on their reserva-
tions, or, if they would not stay there, he would
fight them and steal from them. He wanted
a phy^cian and an Indian Agent for his people,
and expressed a laudable desire to learn some-
thing about two Indians whom he once sent to
Tucson and who, it was rumored, had been mas-
sacred near that place. He furthermore said
that one of Cochise's friends, named Gheis, had
visited Colonel Green, and was anxious to make
peace with the Americans, and that he believed
that Cheis meant what he said. He then spoke
about the Pinalenos, and said that all but one
chief were tired of war. Pedro then subsided,
and Miguel spoke in a new vein- He wanted
hoes, axes, and other tools for his people, so that
they could till the groimd and make themselves
comfortable. This speech pleased Colonel Green
and General Stoneman better than all the rest.
General Stoneman inquired if they, the chiefs,
had said all they desired. Upon being answered
in the affirmative. General Stoneman then com-
menced by promising to do all he could for the
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OtTTRAOES BY INDIANS. 123
Indians who had lived in peace with the whites.
God, he said, wanted all people to live in peace.
Away to the East were myriads of white men,
and the great Father of all Indians and Ameri-
cans would do right by all. This appeared to
please the reds, who grunted their approval.
General Stoneman then said that should the
Navahos continue to war upon them, he would
issue orders to the commanders of posts to send
their soldiers against the Navahos. He advised
them to abandon the foolish custom of burning
the clothing of those who died as it kept them
poor and naked. He said that he woiUd keep
on giving them rations of meat, and perhaps
flour, providing they would live peaceably and
assist the .troops in himting and killing bad
Indians. He tned to impress them with the
idea of the great cost to the Government of
flour, beef, etc., and promised them corn, etc.,
and said he hoped that thereafter they would
raise grain and vegetables to feed themselves.
He further said that the business of the
soldiers was to kill bad Indians and protect
citizens, and if they did not behave themselves
and stop stealing from posts and settlements
that they would all get killed. In two months
he would be prepared to furnish them with med-
icines, and would also write to Congress for an
Indian Agent for them.
"The Colonel's talk being ended, Miguel, with
fitting words and great tact, asked the General
what he intended doing with Barbrashae, an
old and bad Pinal chief, who was then in the
guardhouse in a wilted condition. After in-
quiring about the case, the General asked Miguel
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124 HI8T0BT OF ARIZONA.
what he would like to see done with him. Miguel
would not say further than that the prisoner
was in the General's hands; that he had been
a bad Indian, but was then, and would there-
after be, incapable of doin^ harm, for the very
good reason that he was in feeble health and
could not last long. Finally Miguel acknowl-
edged that he wished Barbrashae set at liberty
and he would go security for his good behavior
in the future if the General demanded it, but
that he first wished to give Barbrashae a piece
of his mind. In answer to this proposition
the General said, in substance, that he would
release Barbrashae, but that if he wanted to
keep on fighting he could do so and he would
get killed. This pleased the Indians and they
applauded with a vim. After a general hand-
shaking, the conference broke up. We bade
goodbye to our friends, and started for Camp
Goodwin, never stopping until we arrived
on the banks of thai noble stream, the Agua
Prieta, or Salt Eiver, which was late in the
afternoon. The distance traveled was eighteen
miles over a very rough country, containing
plenty of wood, water, and grass. During the
night Paymaster Monroe and the Honorable
Sylvester Mowry arrived and told us the news."
Under date of October 14th, 18T1, the
"Miner" prints a petition to the President, at-
tached to which was a list of three hundred and
one names of people killed by the Apaches since
1864, which number was probably not one-half,
but was at least ten per cent of the adult Ameri-
can population of Arizona at that time. This
petition and list follow :
id By Google
OVTBAGES BY INDIANS. 125
"The xmdersigned citizens of the Territory
of Arizona, regarding the present anomalous
state of affairs concerning the Indian difficiilties
in the Territory as being in the highest degree
unsatisfactory and perilous to our interests as
a community, respectfully represent :
*'That we desire nothing more earnestly than
peace with the Apaches.
"That last spring, many disheartened by our
sufEerings and losses from hostile Indians, were
preparing to abandon the Territory where we
have labored and waited for years, hoping for
the subjugation of the Apaches, when the as-
signment of General George Crook to the com-
mand of this Department gave us new hope,
and we determined to hold on a little longer,
and believed that the operations inaugurated by
the General were calculated to result in a speedy
settlement of our troubles, but, just as his plans
were being successfully put in force, we learn
that the matter is taken out of hia hands and
turned over to the Peace Commissioners.
"That although we had no confidence in their
policy, being satisfied from past experiences that
no peace treaty to which the Apache is an equal
party can be lasting, we were willing to give
all the assistance in our power to the Commis-
sioners to aid them in their plans, but since the
arrival of their agent here, we perceive with
dismay tiiat the most hostile tribes refuse to
treat with him, and have continued their mur-
derous and thieving raids as boldly and viciously
"That we are disappointed and discouraged
by the policy of the agent in proposing to con-
126 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA.
tinue the practice of giving asylum and aid at
military posts indiscriminately to all Indians
choosing to seek it, as the past has proven that
the warriors can thus leave their families and
property in security while they make maraud-
ing excursions over the country, and return with
their scalps and plunder to the protection of the
"That we are satisfied that the party having
authority to make peace treaties with our In-
dian enemies should also have power to promptly
punish violations of such treaties.
"Therefore, we, your petitioners, do most
eMuestly ask your ExceUency to inform us
whether it is the design of the Government to
place the management of affairs pertaining to
Indians in Arizona, not now living on reserva-
tions, in the hands of the Peace Commissioners,
or under the control of the Department Com-
"And we do further most respectfully repre-
sent that if the policy here inaugurated by the
agent of the Peace Commissioners is to be per-
swted in, the deserted homes of our friends and
neighbors, and the graves of those slain by the
Apaches, which line every road and trail, and
fill every graveyard in Arizona, warn us that if
we remain here, we must expect a similar fate.
"One cause for this movement is that we of
Arizona, and the people of California in our
behalf, have exhausted, to no purpose, every
other means by which we hoped and believed
the protection of life and property in Arizona
might be secured, and, as a last resort, appeal
to the President in a manner direct.
id By Google
OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 127
' ' That the most prejudiced against the settlers
on the frontiers might be convinced that this
effort has not been wantonly put forth, and at
the same time to prove the terrible necessity
for some means, yet imtried, by which we may
hope to obtain protection, we publish, in con-
nection, a list of such of the Indian murders
and robberies as have been recorded since
Mardi, 1864. We will permit this cause to
speak for itself, to the American people, and
then, without apprehension, we will leave the
fair and disinterested of our fellow citizens to
draw their conclusions with regard to us. Here,
then, is the list :
'*We will commence with Yavapai county,
where, on March 4th, 1864, the savages whom
we had partially clothed and fed, dug up the
hatchet, and without cause or provocation, com-
menced a career of murder and robbery unpar-
alleled in the history of the west, by murdering
five Mexicans and three Americans: Upton,
Mellen, and a man whose name is unknown to
"March 16th, they attacked the ranch of Shel-
don & Forbes, near Prescott, and killed a Mr.
"June 1st, Belnap was murdered near Walnut
"June 6th, they waylaid and killed W. P.
Jones in the Big Bug District, and shockingly
mutilated his body.
"On the same day Samuel Harrison was slain
in Battle Flat.
"July 24th, poor Jack Beauchamp lost his life
while exploring the coimtry east of Prescott.
The 'friendly' Coyoteros killed him.
id By Google
1^ HISTORY or ARIZONA.
"March 13th, three men, names unknown,
were killed near Camp Date Creek.
"March 15th, 1865, Charles Smith was killed
"March 20th, they killed a Mr. Somers near
the same place.
"April 10th, L. Cross was murdered at the
sink of the Hassayampa while herding a band of
animals; twenty-one animals were stolen, and
seventeen arrows shot into Cross' naked corpse.
"Mr. Alexander was killed some time in this
month about two miles west of Prescott.
"March 2nd, a soldier, name unknown, fell into
their hands near Prescott, and was butchered.
"In April, 1865, a Mexican teamster was killed
in Mohave County.
"May 2nd, a Mexican was killed near Lynx
"May 3rd, at Willow Springs, between Camp
Date Creek and Kirkland Valley, Richard Bell,
Cornelius Sage and Charles Cunningham fell
victims to the savages.
"May 26th, John Ryan, a soldier, was mur-
dered near Wickenbui^.
" Jxme 2nd, Harry, alias 'Hog' Johnson, mur-
dered on Arrastra Creek, while on herd.
"July 22nd, they killed a soldier named John
Whitting, near Skull Valley.
"Some time in August Sheriff Calkins and
two soldiers were severely wounded, between
Lynx Creek and Port Whipple.
"In 1865 or 1866 they murdered a son of
Pauline Weaver near Wickenburg.
"In 1865 or 1866 they attacked Pauline
Weaver and a man named Raymond, inflicting
OUTBAOES BY INDIANS. 129
upon Raymond a wound which finally caused his
"March 30th, 1866, Wallapais killed Edward
Clower at the Willows, on the Prescott and Mo-
"May 1st, John Broderick, a soldier, was shot
and killed on the Rio Verde, near Camp Verde.
"About the same date a body of an imkuown
man was found on the trail to Walnut Grove,
corpse mutilated and filled witih arrows.
"In September, 1866, Wm. Boone was killed
in Mohave County.
"November ©th, William Trahem, Leroy Jay
and L. M. Linton were murdered while going
from Woolsey's ranch to the Bully Bueno mill
"November 10th, G.W. Leihy, Superintendent
of Indian Affairs, and his clerk, a Mr. Evarts,
were most foully murdered while passing
through Bell's Canyon, by Indians whom Mr.
Leihy had treated with great kindness.
"In 1866 or 1867, Steinbrook was killed at or
near Walnut Grove.
"April 27th, E. A. Bentley died from the ef-
fects of a wound received in a fight with Indians
at Weaver Hill, a ahort time previous.
"February 19th or 20th they killed, near Mar-
tinez's ranch, on the Preseott and La Paz wagon
road, Jack Gould and two other men, whose
names are unknown to us.
"About this date two soldiers, named Harring-
ton and Duvall, of Co. B., 32nd Infantry, lost
their lives near Camp Verde.
"In March J. Taggart was murdered in Mo-
id By Google
X30 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
"In the same month D. T. McCall was mur-
dered in Mohave Coimty.
"June, 1867, William Taggart was murdered
in Mohave County.
"July 27th, near Walnut Grove, Harvey
Twaddle received a wound, from which he died
"August 1st, they killed a soldier on Big Bug
August 3rd, two soldiers were killed in Bell's
"August Tth, I. A. Wamsley was killed on the
Lower Agua Frla.
"September 10th, they killed W. M. Sexton
near Burnt Ranch.
"March 31st, 1868, Indians attacked a mail
party between the Willows and Cottonwoods on
the Prescott and Mohave road, killed two sol-
diers, Corporal Troy and Private Glover, and
wounded tiie carrier, Charles Spencer.
"May 13tii, Joe Green and John McWhorter
were attacked and kiUed between Camps Mc-
Dowell and Reno.
"May 18th, they killed John C. Baker, east
of the Rio Verde.
"May 29th, a man was killed between Prescott
and Skull Valley.
"June 16th, between McDowell and Reno,
four soldiers, Sergeant Lemon and Privates
Murphy, Memll and Morrow, were killed.
"July 23rd. a soldier named Joachim was shot
dead near Williamson Valley.
"August 30th, the savages killed a man named
Oscar Kelly, between Wickenburg and the Vul-
ture MlU and Mine.
OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 131
"August, John Altman was murdered in Mo-
"September 2nd, a Mexican, Juan Teps, was
murdered between Prescott and Lynx Creek.
"In September a man named R. C. Bean was
killed near the White Moxmtains.
"September 4th, Robert Smith was shot and
killed within sight of the Big Bug Mill.
"October 28th, they killed B. F. Thompson,
one and a half miles from Prescott.
"October 24th, J. J. Gibson received a wound,
from the effects of which he died November 7th,
"October 25th, they killed Josiah Whitcomb
near the Burnt Ranch.
"October 26th, they attacked a party near the
Cienega and wounded George Bowers mortally.
He died October 30th at Camp Verde.
"November 26th, they killed a soldier near
Wiekenburg, and a day or two afterwards a man
named Robert Nix.
"November 8th, they made an attack on a
pack train in Big Bug District, and killed Jose
Rico, Secundia Lopez and Jose Molino.
"November 12th, Frank Pougeot fell into
their clutches near Wiekenburg and was cruelly
"December 1st, John OTDonnell was killed
near Camp Willows, about sixty miles west from
"Some time in 1868 they attacked John Dick-
son and Matt Welsh, who escaped.
"In 1869 they killed as follows:
"February 22nd or 23rd, William Burnett,
near Granite Wash on the Prescott and La Paz
id By Google
132 HISTOBT OF AiOZONA.
"February 25th, John Howell, between Skull
Valley and Kirklstnd Valley.
"February 26tli, David Osbom, near Pres-
"April 18th, Milton S. Hadley, at Camp Toll
"May 29th, J. Sheldon, near Willow Grove.
"August ISth, Harrison Gray, at Walnut
"August 2l8t, a Mexican, name unknown.
"August, William Taylor, murdered in Mo-
"About tie same time, near Beale Springs, a
man called 'Doc' was murdered.
"September 8th, four Mexicans, near the Vul-
"October 16th, Julius Pelet, at the old Mexi-
can camp, lower Lynx Creek.
"November 27th, George Melvin, near Will-
"November 11th, they captured John Y. Shir-
ley near Lynx Creek, about twelve miles east
from Prescott, and burned him at the stake.
"November 27th, Thos. N. Berry was killed
"December 28th, an unknown Mexican was
killed between Camp McDowell and Phoenix.
"December 13th, Wesley Finnerty was mur-
dered at Kirkland Valley.
"February lOth, 1870, Indians stole four ani-
mals from some placer mines on the Hassa-
yampa, about twelve miles from Prescott
"February 21st, the reds visited Phoenix,
and got away with sixteen head of cattle.
"February 28th, a man named Jacob Smith
was killed on the Mohave road, seventeen miles
OUTRAGES BT INDUN8. 133
from Prescott, his body stripped, horribly mu-
tilated and fiUed with arrows.
"March 18th, they made a raid on the herd
belonging to the Big Bug Mill Company,
wounded the herder, and got away with ten
horses and mules.
"March 22nd, a party of three men prospect-
ing about eighty miles northeast from Prescott
were attacked, all seriously wounded and their
animals stolen. Ferdinand Wander was
wotmded mortaEy and shot himself dead with
his own revolver to end his sufferings. The
other two reached the settlements two days later,
nearly dead from loss of blood and want of
"About the same date a party of prospectors
on Bradshaw Mountain, about forty miles south-
east from Prescott, had four pack mules stolen
by the Indians.
"April 1st, the rascals drove off a hundred
and thirty head of sheep and goats belonging to
H. Brooks, one mile from Prescott.
"April Tth, a Mexican was shot through the
arm while cutting wood, two miles above Pres-
"The same day a large band of Indians made
a descent on a herd of mules belonging to Mr.
Ariola, Wickenburg, killed one Mexican herder,
badly wounded another, and got away with sev-
enty-four fine team mules.
"April 17th, the Indians murdered William
Pearson while he was plowing in Mint Valley,
fourteen miles from Prescott, and drove off his
id By Google
134 HI8T0RT OF ARIZONA.
"April 18th, P. Dorgan was shot and seriouriy
wounded while prospecting near Camp Date
"April 19th, a man named Qreel^, a station-
keeper on the road ten miles below Wickenbui^,
was murdered near his house.
"April 23rd, a Mr. Seebright, who had charge
of a herd of tliree hundred and fifty sheep, near
Williamson Valley, was murdered and all the
"May 18th, Oliver Peterson was shot and
three animals stolen, at Walnut Grove. Mr.
Peterson died from his wounds about three
"June 3rd, the Indians made a raid on a herd
of sixty head of cattle between Fort Whipple
and Prescott, belonging to A. G. Dunn. The
herder was shot through the hand. Although
the Indians were closely pursued for twenty
miles, they got off with eleven head, and killed
six head on the trail.
"June 4th, Indians attacked the Government
herd at Camp Verde, killed the corporal in
charge of the herd, and drove away twelve ani-
"Jime eth, Alfred Johnson and Mr. Watson
were murdered on the road between Skull Val-
ley and Camp Date Creek.
"June 13th, Indians stole two horses and ten
burros from Burger & Lambertson, at Walnut
"July 24th, Messrs. Thomas, Elliott and Daw-
son, coming to town witti a load of barley, were
attacked by thirty Apaches and, after an hour's
id By Google
OUTRAGES BT INDUNS. 135
fighting, were obliged to abandon their wagon
and load, which the Tti d iant ^ burned.
"August 10th, Apaches stole six head of cattle
from Joe Fye on Salt River.
"About the same date Indians stole nine
horses and mules from the Eureka Mill, at the
head of Lynx Creek, and drove off three animals
from the Davis Ranch on the Hassayampa, also
shot and slightly wounded S. BaU near the
"August 27th : during the week ending August
27th, the Apaches gobbled up fourteen head of
horses and mules in Williamson Valley, nine
near Gamp Hualapai, two at Wickenburg, and
five at Deep Wash Station on the La Paz Road.
"September 14th, Indians stole nine head of
cattle from J. H. Lee, at American ranch, in
Rotind Valley, twelve miles from Prescott.
"October 6th, Wm. E. Denniaon was murdered
by Indians at Davis' ranch on the Hassayampa,
eight miles from Prescott.
"November 13th, Wm. Farley and J. T. Bul-
lock were brutally murdered by Apaches near
the Big Bug quartz mill.
"November 15th, Thomas Rutledge was mur-
dered and mutilated by Indians within half a
mile of Prescott.
"March 1st, 1864, Gilbert W. Hopkins and
W. Wrightson were murdered near Fort Bu-
"Here follows a lapse of two years during
which no newspaper was published at Tucson,
and consequently no record of the Indian depre-
id By Google
136 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA.
dations in Pima comity for that term is extant.
It is probable that during this period eight
Americans were burned at the stake near Apache
Pass, and that murd^ and robbery became
'wholesale' on the Santa Cruz, Sonoita and San
"March 2eth, 1866, Major Miller, U. S. A.,
and four soldiers were attacked and murdered
at Round Valley, on the road from the Pima
Villages to Gamp Grant.
"June 7th, 18OT, three Mexicans were mur-
dered between Camp Grant and Tucson.
"June 4th, a white man, name unknown, was
murdered on the ranch of Jesus M. EUas, near
Camp Grant, and on the same day, another man
was murdered on the randi of Tomlinson & Co.,
on the San Pedro.
"March 23rd, 1868, Johnson and Daniels were
murdered near Picacho.
"May 6th, a Mexican, three miles from Tuc-
"May 2i6th, four men, Brownley, 'Tennessee,'
Knowles and King, between Tucson and the
"July 13th, near the Cienega, Soto and Barba
"July 15tli, near San Xavier, a friendly In-
dian was slain and a woman carried off into
"July 16th, Alonzo M. Erwin murdered at
"July 23rd, near Camp Crittenden, two men
were murdered and a man named Carroll cap-
tured and carried off.
"July 24th, a Mexican named Cozozo was
murdeiW near Camp Grant.
id By Google
OUTBAOES BY INDIANS. 137
"August 27th, James Peimmg;ton, near San
"November lOth, a Mr. Ballon near Apache
"November ISth, a Mexican near the same
"February 2eth, 1869, they murdered two
men, Price and Davis, near Camp Grant.
"March 19th, two Mexicans were murdered
"March 23rd, a white man was murdered near
"April 13, seven Mexicans murdered near
"April 14th, near same place, two soldiers
"M^y 11th, between Tucson and Camp Grant
three men murdered.
"March 28th, a man killed at San Pedro.
"Jime 10th, the savages murdered Mr. Pen-
nington and son, of Sonoita.
"June 19th, Jose Jaramillo was murdered at
"June 26th, at the same place, two men lost
"July 3rd, on the San Pedro, three men,
Johnson, McMurray and O'Donnell, fell victims
to the savages.
"July 15th, a Mexican at Palo Parado ranch.
"August 25th, man murdered at Soldiers'
"October 6th, seven men, four soldiers and
three citizens, were murdered near Apadte
Pass. Among them were Colonel Stone, Presi-
dent of the Apache Pass Mining Company, and
138 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
a Mr. Kaler. The names of the other victims
"October 13th, two Mexicans murdered near
"November 26th, Benjamin Aiken and a Mexi-
can were murdered on the Sonoita.
"November 30th, Bichard Halstead was mur-
dered near Florence.
"December 14th, they murdered the mail car-
rier between Florence and McDowell.
"About the same date they murdered three
men near the Cienega.
"September 7th, 1869, Indians made a descent
upon a ranch at the RiUito, and captured thirty-
five head of beef cattle, the property of Don
"September 9thj two Texans, named Benton
and Foster, returning to their native State, were
murdered by Indians at San Pedro.
"October 13th, a band of Indians captured a
herd of ninely cattle at the Rillito, and killed
one Mexican and four horses.
"October 2l8t, a Mexican named Pesquiera
was fired at by Indians near Nine Mile Station,
and his horse shot dead under him.
"November 27th, Indians captured Govern-
ment herd at Camp Bowie.
"November 27th, Indians stole two horses
from the station of J. Miller at the Cienega.
"November 28th, Indians visit Camp Critten-
den at night, kill a cow at a distance of two him-
dred yards from the post, and carry off a tent.
"About the same date they attacked the prem-
ises of Mr. Barnes at Camp Wallen, carried off
his effects and then burned his store and store-
id By Google
OUTBACKS BY INDIANS. 139
"Deeember 1st, Indians steal tiiirty-two head
of mxiles from the ranch of Mr. Allen, bordering
on Tucson, in view of Gamp LowelL
"December 4th, the homes of three Ameri-
cans, recently murdered, were discovered near
"December 10th, the mail rider on the route
between Florence and Camp McDowell, was
murdered and the mail captured. Indians en-
deavored to fire a ranch at Gamp Grant and
stole a Government mule.
"January 8tii, 1870, Samuel Brown and J.
Simma were murdered by Indians at the San
Pedro settlement and their team captured.
'* January 17th, Indians invaded the premises
of Glint Thompson, at Sacaton, and captured
forty-five head of cattle.
"January 18th, thirty-eight head of cattle cap-
tured by Indians near San Xavier.
"January 20th, they attacked the Sonora mail
stage near Sasabi Flat. E. A^erra, his clerk,
and two passengers were murdered.
"January 31st, Indians made a descent upon
the ranch of Mr. Morgan near Gamp Crittenden,
and drove off three mules belonging to W. J.
"February 2nd, Solomon Warner and Dr.
Wakefield were attacked by Indians near Gamp
Crittenden, the former woimded, and the latter
"February 3rd, Indians attacked a train near
the Point of Moimtain, drove off the escort,
killed two men, wounded one, drove off twelve
mules, and carried off a considerable amount of
id By Google
140 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
"February 8th, Diego Gampio was murdered
by Indians in the nei^borhood of Florence^ and
teams and other property captured-
' ' February 22nd, iQidiana stole six fine blooded
cows from the ranch of Mr. Allen near Tucson.
"February 26th, Indians visited the premises
of Colonel Ruggles, near Florence, and stole two
horses from the corral.
"March 1st, Indians made a raid upon the
ranches of Brown and Gardner, near Camj) Crit-
tenden, and captured all the stock belonging to
"March 7th, the Paymaster's clerk, en route
from Camp Reno to Camp McDowell, with an es-
cort of thirteen soldiers, was wounded, and one
of the escort killed.
"April €th, a Mexican named Siez was mur-
dered at Rillito ; his horse and the horse of his
"April 7th, a herd of two hundred cattle, the
property of Juan Gregalba, stolen from a field in
the vicinity of Tucson.
"April 10th, A. J. Jackson murdered by In-
dians at Ban Pedro.
"April nth, a Mexican named Soto was mur-
dered and scalped in the nei^borhood of Camp
"April 18th, Indians visited Camp Grant and
stole three horses from Captain Hmds' wagon,
and four mules, the property of C. Conwell.
"April 17th, Indians visited the ranch of J.
Miller at the Cienega, and killed one of the sol-
diers stationed there.
"April 21st, a party of Mexicans coming from
Sonora were attacked by Indians at the Potrero,
and six men killed.
id By Google
OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 141
"June 6, two hundred Indians attacked the
wagons of Messrs. Kennedy & Israel, near Can-
yon del Ore, murdered both men, captured the
teams and goods, and burned the wagons.
"June 8th, Indians made a raid upon the
ranch of Mr. Gardner, on the Sonoita, murdered
David Holland, captured a Mexican boy, and ran
ofE a herd of cattle.
"June 15th, Indians take twenty-eight head of
cattle from San Xavier, the property of Mr.
"June 25th, Indians attacked a prospecting
party near Cottonwood Springs, on the road
from Florence to Camp Grant, wounded Messrs.
Myers, Johns and Curtis, and captured the
wagon and its effects valued at about two thou-
"July 1st, Indians attacked the train of Mr.
Yerkes near the San Pedro and killed one mule.
"July 10th, Mr. Yerkes' train again attacked,
at Oak Grove, fifty odd miles from Camp Good-
win, and one animal captured.
"On the same day Messrs. Smith and Ynigo
were murdered on tiie ranch of Peter Kitchen,
fifteen miles from Tubac.
"tfuly 14th, Indians visited Point of Mountain
Station, eighteen miles west of Tucson, and cap-
tured six mules.
' ' July 17th, Indians attacked the randi of J. C.
Blanchard, near Tubac, carried off all his effects,
and fired the buildings.
"August 7th, Thomas Venable, Peter Riggs,
and a Mexican killed by Indians at Davis
Springs, eighteen miles from Camp Crittenden.
Wagons and goods to the value of over six thou-
sand dollars burned, and the stock driven off.
142 HISTORY OP ARIZONA.
''August 8th, the mail rider and two other men,
Scott and Young, were murdered at the Cienega,
tweniy-flve miles eastward from Tucson. The
station, with much property, was destroyed.
"August 13th, Indians attacked station at
Point of Mountain and seriously wounded Mr.
Blowe in the left shoulder.
"August 18th, mail stage attacked by Indians
halfway between the Cienega, and the San
Pedro ; murdered Wm. Bums, driver, John Col-
lins, stage superintendent, and two soldiers of
Co. D, 2l8t Infantry.
"December 28th, they attacked a freight train
between Tucson and Camp Goodwin, killed Mar-
tin Rivera, wounded two others and captured
thirty head of oxen.
*'The same day a party of Sonoranians were
attacked near Tubac and two were killed.
' ' September 23rd, 1868, John Killian was way-
laid and murdered within one mile of Hardy-
"October 1st, in Sacramento District, four
men, Messrs. Woodworth, Benjamin, Judson,
and Baker, met their death at the hands of sav-
ages ; Sam Knodle wounded, lost the use of his
"June 24th, 1867, the savages killed a mail car-
rier, name unknown, near Beale Springs.
"August 20th, James H. Stimpson, Frank
Messeur, and Edward Tonker lost their lives
while visiting mines in Sacramento District.
"January 5th, 1871, Indians made a night at-
tack upon Lieut. Cradlebaugh's command, con-
OUTBAOES BY INDIANS. 143
aisting of the Lieutenant himself, citizens Peck
and MeCraekin, Surgeon Steigers, and twenty
enlisted men, which resulted in the wounding of
Dr. Steigers and private Meyers, the killing of
twenty-three government horses, and the capture
of three. This happened about forty miles east
"January 11th, a Mexican train was attacked
near the Agua Fria Station on the road from
Phoenix to Wickenburg; one Mexican was killed
and three were wounded. The savages took a
horse and thirty-two head of cattle after having
destroyed the contents of the wagons.
"About this date the savages made a raid upon
the Oila, and stole eighteen head of mules.
"January 14th, Apaches stole thirty or forty
mules from the vicinity of Arizona City.
"About the same date they got off with seven
head of cattle and twelve horses from Culling's
Station on the Prescott and La Paz road.
"On the 19th, near CampMcDowell, they at-
tacked a train belonging to W. B. Hellings & Co.,
killed George King, wounded P. Fenton, and an-
other man. They then burned the wagons and
their contents and put off towards the mountains
with Mr. Helling's animals, twenty-five mules.
"February 8th, Indians fired on some citizens
near Camp Verde.
"About the same date Indians stole four
horses from Phoenix.
"Also at Willow Grove, a party of Wallapai
Indians shot a man and ran off with several head
"February 11th, a party of fifty savages was
discovered when about to attack Beach's train,
id By Google
144 HISTORT OF ARIZONA.
near Prescott, and being charged by the whites,
' ' Soon after this they visited the ranch
formerly owned by Litt^ on Lower Granite
Creek, about twelve miles from Prescott, and
opened fire upon two men who were at work for
A. C. Williamson. The men held their ground
for awhile and then fledL
"About the same date a party of them paid
their respects to the settlement on the Rio Verde,
five miles below Camp Verde, and robbed a poor
woman, Mrs. Ralston, of a lot of clothing and
other property. Previous to this they tried to
get some animals out of the corral, but did not
"They next attempted to capture the stage be-
tween Phoenix and Wickenburg.
"January 23rd, the savages made a raid on the
ranches near Tumaeacori^ wounded a Portu-
guese named 'Joe,' and drove off four horses.
"January 31s1^ near Sacaton, a party of
Apaches attacked three men who were at work
for D. C. Thompson, cutting hay, and at the first
fire wounded a man whose name we do not know.
The Indians were followed, but eluded their pur-
suers, one of whom, A. Gonzales, strayed from
his comrades and on returning in the night was
taken for an Apache, shot and woimded by Frank
"On the night of January 29th, they attempted
to steal some horses from the San Pedro, were
discovered, when one Indian was killed and an-
"About the same time they attacked a party
of three men and one woman on the road near
Gamp Bowie, and robbed them of their stock.
Digitized oy Google
OUTRAGES BT INDIANS. 145
"February 1st, they tried to steal stock near
Tucson, but were unsuccessful. They tried
again on the morning of the 4th with better suc-
cess, for we learn that they drove off 110 animals
from Adam Linn's ranch.
"February 15tii, Indians attacked Lieutenant
Riley and ten men while guarding a government
herd, near Infantry Camp in the Pinal Moun-
tains, killed one soldier, wounded two others, and
captured about seventy bead of mules and a num-
ber of cattle.
"About the same date they poimced upon a
herd of beef cattle near Camp Thomas, now
Camp Apache, and drove them off and subse-
quently they attempted to capture some stock
near Camp Verde.
"March 2nd, a white man, while at work near
Phoenix, was chased into his house by Apache-
"About the same time, near the same place,
several Pima and Maricopa Indians killed about
twelve head of cattle belonging to Messrs. Hol-
comb & Murray.
"March 7th, a band of Indians captured and
destroyed the U. S. Mail near Gila Bend,
wounded the driver and drove off the mules.
"March 10th, Mr. Ainza's train, en route to
Infantry Camp, with Government supplies, was
attacked by a large band of Indians, and two
teamsters wete kiUed and one wounded.
"On the same day Indians attacked the train
of Manuel Tnigo between Camps Grant and
Pinal — skilled one soldier, one Mexican, and cap-
tured sixteen mules,
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146 HISTOBY OP ARIZONA.
'* March 11th, an Indian walked into the store
of the post trader at Camp Apache, and stuck
his lance through the body of Mr. Redmond, kill-
ing him instantly.
"On the 14th, Hinds & Hooker's herds, at In-
fantry Camp was attacked; two herders were
killed and tiieir arms captured by the savage
assailants. Later in the day the sentinels at the
post were fired upon.
"March 18th, a band of Indians made a descent
upon the ranch of Mr. Hughes at Camp Critten-
den, killed Mr. Cook; captured his team, and
sacked the building and premises.
"The same day a party of savages attacked a
ranch within sight of Camp Crittenden, mur-
dered two men, robbed and burned several
houses, stole two horses and other proi>erty.
"March 21st, Indians in strong force de-
scended to the valley of Tubac, killed L. B. Woos-
ter and Miss Trinidad Aguirre, and destroyed
property to the value of fifteen hundred dollars.
"March 24th, Indians carried off ten head of
cattle from a ranch five miles west of Tucson.
"On the 26th Hanna's freight train was at-
tacked near Agua Fria Station by about a hun-
dred and fifty Indians, Apaehe-Mohaves, who
killed Mr. Hanna and one ottier man ; burned the
wagons and their contents, and took twenty-two
"April 1st, near Camp Date Creek, a large
party of Indians attacked a train of five wagons,
four belonging to Dr. W. W. Jones, and one to
Henry Lachman. The savages killed Mr. Lach-
man, wounded another man, plundered the
wagons, and drove off the animals.
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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 147
"April 2nd, near Peeples' Valley, a party of
savages killed a man named Wykoff, wounded
John Burger, got three animals, two guns, and
"April 9th, Indians captured the herd of Juan
Elias, near San Xavier on the Santa Cruz.
"April 12th, a band of Indians from the Camp
Grant Reservation swept over the San Pedro
Valley, killing Mr. Long, Mr. MeKenzie, and Mr.
Cfaapin, and wounded a Mexican.
"April 5th, Lieutenant Howard B. Cushing,
W. H. Simpson, and a soldier named Green,
killed by Indians in the Whetstone Mountains.
"April 14th, Indians captured twenty headof
stock from a herd belonging to Hinds & Hooker
near Cababi. The U. S. mail wagon was cap-
tured twelve miles east of San Pedro, the driver,
Mark Revlin, kUled, and the animals captured
"May 1st, Indians captured forty head of oxen
from a train near Camp Verde.
"May 8th, Indians captured ei^ty-seven head
of animals from a train on its way from Camp
Verde to New Mexico.
"May 15th, the reservation Indians stampeded
from Camp Apache, drove off the government
herd, and captured the military mail.
"June 3rd, Indians stole four head of horses
from a ranchman on the Upper Verde.
" Jime 5th, Indians killed Mr. Gantt, at Agua
Fria, and captured the herd of Bowers Brothers,
numbering one hundred and sixty animals.
"June 7th, a large force of Indians devastated
the Upper Santa Cruz Valley, killed four men
and woxmded two. Among the killed were two
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148 HiaroBT of abizona.
Americans named Saunders and Blanchard; the
balance killed and wounded were Mexicans.
"June 16th, Indians stole four horses from Mr.
LambertsoD at Walnut Grove.
"Jxme 23rd, Indians murdered Mr. Cooper
near the Vulture Mine.
"July 7th, Indians killed a mall rider and cap-
tured a mail wagon near the Apache Pass.
"July 9th, Indians fired into a party of miners
between Prescott and Bradshaw, and woimded
one man named Leonard.
' 'July 10th, Indians stole five mules from a set-
tler near Wickenburg.
"July 11th or 12th, a company of infantry,
under Captain Smith, was attacked by a band of
Cochise's Indians between the Cienega and Rio
San Pedro; one private, W. H. Harris, was
killed, and three woxmded.
"July 22nd, Indians drove oflE a herd of cattle
from the upper Santa Cruz, finishing a series of
continual raids in the course of which two hun-
dred head of horses and cattle had been captured
from the valley.
"July 20th, Indians captured the Government
herd at Camp Bowie, killed the herder, one Me-
Dougall, and wounded a soldier named Foley.
"July 24th, Abraham Henning murdered by In-
dians near Camp Hualapai.
"July 25tli, two men fired upon by Indians a
few miles north of Prescott, and one slightly
wounded. Two horses killed' at the mining camp
on the Hassayampa. Two mules stolen by In-
dians from tile premises of C. Y. Shelton at Lynx
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OUTBAGES BY INDIANS. 149
"July 26th, a band of Indians visited Walnut
Grove and stole eleven head of stock from the
corral of Wm. Simmons.
"August 3rd, Indians, a second time, captured
the herd of Bowers Brothers at Agua Fria.
"On the same day Indians made an attack
upon Messrs. Rogers and Smith, near Camp Bate
"August 5th, Messrs. Harrington and Whisler
murdered and a Mexican wounded near Gamp
Yerde, the animals and arms of the murdered
men secured by the savages.
"August 6th, Indians captured fourteen head
of horses and mules, the property of Wales Ar-
nold, near Camp Verde.
"August 7th, Joseph Burroughs murdered by
Indians near Camp Verde. Meul stage fired into
while en route to Wiekenburg from Prescott.
"August 14th, Indians stole thirty head of
stock from a ranch near San Xavier on the Santa
"August 23nd, Indians drove off three horses
belonging to Mr, Lambertson, from his farm at
"August 25th, sis mules stolen by Indians
from Captain Kaufman's escort, between Camp
Verde and the Little Colorado.
"September 1st, eight head of horses, the prop-
erty of a party of miners, stolen by Indians from
"September 5th, Gabriel, a Mexican herder in
the employ of Mr. Campbell, murdered by In-
dians at Chino Valley.
"September eth, Indians visited Camp Mc-
Dowell, killed some stock, and carried off tents
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150 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
' ' September 4th, Indians captured seventy-five
head of Govermnent animals from Gamp Critten-
"September 10th, Indians fired into a detach-
ment of Pinal prospectors, killed one man and
"September 13th, a mail rider and a stock
herder murdered by Indians two miles from Tuc-
son, the mail captured and destroyed, and the
mule of the mail rider taken by the Indians to the
Camp Grant Reservation.
"September 22nd, Indians visited the settle-
ment at Agua Fria, and burned a house belong-
ing to Daniel Hatz.
'* September 23rd, a party of Indians captured
a herd of twenty cattle from a ranch two miles
south of Tucson. They were followed by a party
of citizens, and so closely pursued that they aban-
doned the plunder and took refuge on the Camp
"Some three weeks ago an American and a
German left Prescott to hunt for game, and not
having been heard from since, the supposition is
that they have been murdered.
"Then, within the past few weeks, and while
the Indians had full knowledge of the presence
in their midst of a 'Peace Commission,' they
broke into and robbed a house at Skull Valley;
stole a horse from T. W. Boggs of lower Agua
Fria, over a ton of com from John Townsend of
the same place, and hundreds of bushels of com
from farmers of other localities, shot at the mail
carrier near Wickenburg, and fisred upon some
men at Kirkland Valley. "
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OTTTRAOES BT INDIANS. 151
OUTRAGES BY INDIANS (Continued).
QOTEBNOR SaFPORD'8 MeBSAOE CaLES ATTENTION
TO Outrages— Public Sentiment in Refer-
ence TO Camp Grant Massacke}— Militart
Account op Camp Grant Massacre — Trial
op participante — charge of judge titus —
Defendants Acquitted — More Outrages bt
Indians — Lieutenant Cushing's Expedi-
tions Against Hostilbs — Kilung op Lieu-
In his message to the Legislative Ajssembly at
Tucson, January 14th, 1871, Governor Safford
called attention to recent outrages in the month
of August, linking the Indians in a simidtaneous
movement along the Southern Overland Route.
Two stage drivers were killed, one stage captured
and all on board were murdered. A train was
taken and all with it killed. A stage station
twenty-two miles east of Tucson was taken, and
but two of the inmates escaped alive. Several
others were killed about that time. He said that
the Coyoteros and Apache-Mohaves, branches of
the Apache tribe, had expressed a desire for
peace, and that a large reservation had been set
apart for the former by the United States. He
said: "I visited the reservation in June last, and
believe the larger number of this band earnestly
desire peace. I found they were very poor, with
no seed for planting except tiiat furnished by the
military authorities, and they were of necessity
obliged to roam over a large extent of country, as
152 HisroBy of Arizona.
Indians always are, unless provided with ample
agricultural facilities. I found the military do-
ing everything possible to provide them with
seeds, but were not authorized to supply even
their present wants, except in limited amounts ;
consequently the Indians had to principally de-
pend upon game for subsistence. Much dissatis-
faction and ill-feeling exist on the part of the set-
tlers on account of the general belief that por-
tions of this tribe join with marauding hands
against them, and, as soon as their nefarious
work is done, retuni to their reservation for
safety. The Apache-Mohaves have received no
assistance except from the military authorities,
and that of necessity has been limited; and from
personal observation, strengthened by informa-
tion received from officers and citizens who have
been more or less among them, I am convinced
that they have been for some time past in a suf-
fering condition; and I shall not be surprised if
in a few weeks, and perhaps days, they are again
in open hostility. Three persons were murdered
recently near Prescott, and it is charged, by well-
informed citizens, to these Indians. They have
also banded together in considerable mmibers,
and made demands on the inhabitants of Chino
Valley for food, with which the latter were un-
able to comply. The Indians retired without ac-
tually commencing hostilities, but informed tiie
people that they would return with increased
numbers and take what they wanted. The dan-
ger was considered so imminent that all the fami-
lies of the valley were removed to Prescott for
safety, and quite as much alarm now prevails
with tile people as when these Indians were in
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OTTCRAOBS BY INDUITS. 153
"The Indians now engaged in open hostility
are the Finals, Tontos, what is commonly known
as Oochise's band, and more or less renegades
from all the bands that assume to be on terms of
peace. It is also a well established fact that the
Navahos, who occupy a reservation in New Mex-
ico, have made frequent raids, and stolen prop-
erty and murdered citizens as far west as Pres-
cott. I believe I have fairly stated to you the
condition and position the Apache Indians oc-
cupy toward us at present."
An account of what is known as the "Gamp
Grant Massacre" has been given in a previous
volume in the biography of W. B. Oury. The
following, clipped from the two leading papers
in the Territory at that time, shows public senti-
ment in reference thereto: The ".^jizona Citi-
zen" of May 6th, 1B71, says:
"The canyon is situated south of the Gila
River, some forty miles east of Florence, and
about sixty miles north of Tucson. For weeks it
had been known that a band of Indians was
camped in that vicinity, and numbers of animals
were stolen from the friendly Papagoes near
Tucson. Four citizens in the San Pedro Valley
were murdered by the party there encamped.
These discoveries were rendered more believable
by the fact that it was redskins, and that they had
made one of the old style Pinal Treaties with
the commander at Camp Grant. They had been
receiving rations from that post for some time,
and had, in an apparently friendly mood, settled
themselves in the canyon near the post, and while
eating government supplies would make their
murderous raids and return under the shadow,
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154 HISTOBT OF AfilZONA.
as it were, of Gamp Grant, gorging themselves on
the meat of stolen mules, horses, donkeys, and
cattle, rejoicing in their success, gloating over
their plimder, living in fancied security, and pre-
paring to make another raid on some settlers or
travellers. Having proof of their treachery, the
dwellers in Tucson and vicinity went after these
Finals, and of the entire band in camp, after the
attack, only seven are known to have escaped.'*
The "Prescott Miner," under date of June
10th, 1871, has the following:
"Many declare that the £idians killed 'were
under the protection of the Government, having
surrendered themselves and being considered
prisoners of war.'
' ' Yes ! as prisoners of war, armed to the teeth,
unrestricted, and under no surveillance what-
ever. Prisoners of war, camped at a distance of
four miles from the post to which they owed obe«
dience. Prisoners of war who visited the valley
of the Santa €ruz, distant eighty miles, and mur-
dered two persons, and captured all the cattle and
horses in the neighborhood, a few of which, to-
gether with an ornament worn by one of the vic-
tims, were recaptured at Camp Grant. Prison-
ers of war who next captured the United States
mail twelve miles east of the San Pedro, and
sixty-five miles from their rancheria and mur-
dered the driver. Prisoners of war who marched
to the San Pedro settlement and there murdered
the last settlers in the valley, whence the avfflo-
ging force followed their trail to the Camp Grant
encampment. Prisoners of war who had just
succeeded in all their depredations and were
again on the warpath to the number of more than
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OTTTBAOES BY INDIANS. 155
a hundred, with the conunanding officer at Camp
Grant at the head of forty men following on their
trail. Over five hundred Indians, fantastieidly
styled 'Prisoners of War,' to whom provisions
and ammimition were supplied. Less than three
hundred and fifty Indians were present when the
Papago Indians made the attack. The band
were on the warpath with Captain Stanwood in
"We have seen the action of the Papago In-
dians and the men who accompanied them termed
a cowardly slaughter of helpless women and
children. We do not know it to be such, but we
are credibly informed that some of the women
and children were Jiilled, which could not pos-
sibly have been otherwise where men and women
are collected indiscriminately, and men, particu-
larly Papago Indians, in the excitement of battle,
are not the proper persons of whom to expect wise
discrimination. We should be as ready as any
of our contemporaries, to denounce a war upon
women and children, but such this was not. It
was the action of the people, aroused by govern-
mental neglect, who took up arms and marched
forward, prepared to encounter the enemy of
double their number, and avenge their wrongs, or
perish in the attempt, and we say: 'God speed
every such mission. ' ' '
From Bourke, "On the Border with Crook*';
Dunn, "Massacres of the Mountains"; and the
Fish manuscript, I condense the following:
In February, 1871, a party of women came into
Camp Grant in search of a captive boy.
Through them communications were had with
Es-kim-in-zin, the chief of the band. The chief
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156 HKTFOBT OF ARIZONA.
said that his people wished to make peace. As
there were no provisions made for caring for
th^OQ, Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman, who was in
command at the post, told them to go to the
White Mountains. They were not willing to do
this. It was finally agreed that they were to sur-
render to him and remain around the post as
prisoners for the present. By March 5th about
three himdred had come in and surrendered.
Some of them were too old to go on the warpath,
and some were peaceably inclined. Whitman
sent a full account of this to division headquar-
ters, and six weeks later received an answer stat-
ing that his communication had not been in-
dorsed in accordance with oflScial etiquette, and
it was returned therewith, with instructions to
return it to Department Headquarters "prop-
erly briefed. " The fate of three hundred people
was of less importance than the manner of ad-
dressing a report. The red tape business with
our Government has caused much trouble and
delays which could be avoided. These Indians
were employed in some useful work, such as cut-
ting hay, etc They were counted and rations
issued to them every day, but soon after being
removed a little further from the post, the count
and issuing of rations was every third day. They
behaved well as far as known by the officers in
chai^. The citizens, especially at Tucson and
vicinity, were indignant at this feeding of the
Apaches, and refused to believe that they had
surrendered in good faith. The military au-
thorities had not taken the necessary precaution
to prevent the hostiles from coming in and mix-
ing with them. Most of these Indians were
OUTBACOS BY INDIANS. 157
friendly, but there were, doubtless, some hostiles
in this number who were on hand to aid those
who were on the warpath.
The following is the military account of the
Camp Grant Massacre, condensed from the Fish
In accordance with the peace xwUcy which had
been decided upon by the United States Govern-
ment, these Indians were placed upon a reserva-
tion not far from the post. They were princi-
pally the Pinal and Aravaipa bands of Apache
Indians. After some experimenting, Royal E.
"Whitman, a lieutenant in the Third Caval^, was
assigned to duty as their agent. He was imscru-
pulous, and had outside parties in Tucson to
work the business. A sutler's store wm firat
started, then a blacksmith shop, and butcher
shop. His sharp practices and moneymaking
proclivities soon became disagreeable to the In-
dians. Some have claimed that this caused dis-
satisfaction when it was discovered that they
were being cheated out of what the Government
was giving them, but notwithstanding all these
stories, and that Whitman was considered by
many as a worthless fellow, he had great in-
fluence with the Indians, and could do more with
them than any one else. During the winter of
1870-71, it was claimed that these Indians com-
mitted many depredations within a radius of a
hundred miles to the southwest. "Qn the killing
of Wooster and wife on the Santa Cruz, above
Tubac, indignation meetings were heldin Tucson.
At tiiese meetings there was much "speechify-
ing," as we are told, about killing the "red
devils." It was claimed that it was these In-
158 HISrOBT OF ABIZONA.
(lians around Gamp Grant that were committing
the depredations. Arrangements were made at
one of these meetings to organize a militia force,
and W. S. Ouiy was elected captain. The reso-
lutions (^awfi up received tiie signature of
eighty-two of the Americans. One result of
these meetings was the appointing of a com-
mittee to visit the department commander, Gen-
eral Stoneman, who was at that time on the Gila,
near Florence. The committee consisted of
W. S. Oury, S. R. DeLong, J. W. Hopkins, and
some others. They made a trip to the Gila, and
saw the General. The result of the conference
was, in substance, that the General had but few
troops and could not protect nearly all tiie places,
and could not give them any aid ; as Tucson had
the largest population of any place in the Ter-
ritory, he gave the committee to imderstand that
Tucson would have to protect itself. The com-
mittee returned, a little disappointed in not
getting the aid they had sought and hoped for,
and feeling generally cross and grieved over
their hard trip and the loss of a mule.
In the ^rly part of April, 1871, a raid was
made upon the San Xavier and stock driven off
by Indians. They were pursued and some stock
recovered. One Indian was killed. It was
claimed that he was identified as one of the
Camp Grant Indians, he having lost a certain
tooth which made him a marked man. The pur-
suing party returned to Tucson and claimed that
the raiders were Camp Grant Indians. In a
short time a plan was arranged to pursue the
raiders. This plan was promulgated by one
Jesus M. Elias. Some Papago Indians were
OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 159
sent for to assist, and it was arranged for all
parties to meet on the Rillito on tSe 28th of
April. This was done with great precaution
and secrecy. Parties were sent to guard the road
that no news should be taken to Camp Grant of
any parties leaving Tucson. The various par-
ties met as agreed, and comprised the following :
Papagoes 92, Mexicans 48, and Americans €,
total 146. The Americans made a very small
showing considering the amoimt of blustering
they had done. Adjutant General J. B. Allen
furnished a wagon with arms and ammunition
and stores for the expedition. The father of the
project, Jesus M. EUas, was elected commander
of tiie company, although W. S. Oury was along
and seems to have been one of the main ones in
the enterprise. The company left the Rillito at
4 p. m. They rested most of the next day on
the San Pedro to avoid being seen, then started
at dark, making an all night's march, and
reached the Indian camp just at dayl^t and,
in full view of the post, fell upon their unsus-
pecting victims, killing a hundred and twenty-
eight of them in a few minute. The surprise
was complete, and old and young of both sexes
went down before Hie assailants. Not one of
the attacking party was hurt. Twenty-nine
children were spared and taken by the Papagoes
and sold as slaves. Out of this number, however,
two escaped, and five were recovered from Ari-
zonans. It was the custom with the Pimas as
well as the Papagoes to sell the children taken
from the Apaches to other tribes and into
Sonera. The bloody deed was accomplished on
iiie morning of the' Holy 'Sabbath, April 30th,
160 HISIOBT OF ABIZONA.
1871, The company then went into camp for
breakfast and to spend a portion of the Lord's
day in rest and thanks for their victory. Cap-
tain Penn, commanding at Fort Lowell, sent
word to Lieutenant Whitman of the movement.
On receipt of the message the latter at once sent
two men to tell the IncUans to come in, but the
message was too late, the bloody work had been
done. Dr. Biresly, post surgeon, with twelve men,
was then dispatched to the place with a wagon
to bring in any wounded tl^t might be found.
In his report Dr. Biresly said: "On my arrival
I found that I should have but little use for
wagon or medicine. The work had been too
thoroughly done. The camp had been fired, and
the dead bodies of some twenty-one women and
children were lying scattered over the ground.
Those who had been woimded in the first instance
had had their brains beaten out with stones.
Two of the best looking of the squaws were lying
in such a position, and from the appearance of
the genital organs and of their woimds, there
can be no doubt that they were first ravished and
then shot. Kearly all tiie dead were mutilated.
One infant of some ten months was shot twice,
and one leg hacked nearly off."
The party claimed as a justification of this
massacre that they found an Indian boy riding
a horse which was identified as one belonging
to Bon Leopoldo, and that some of the clothing
of Dona Trinidad Aguirre was also f oimd. Take
it altogether the proof against these Indiana was
very sli^t The trail followed led toward this
point, but it does not appear that it was at-
tempted to be followed for the last thirty miles
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OUTRAOBS BY INDIANS. IGl
at least, for the march was made in the night
to avoid being seen ; besides, the trail was then
some three weeks old. It matters but little as
to the proof. No act could justify the indis-
erinainate massacre of women and children. At
the I>ecember term of court a hundred and four
of the perpetrators of this deed were indicted
and tried before Judge Titus at Tucson, and
were acquitted, the jury being out twenty min-
utes. It was impossible, under the existing feel-
ing, to convict a person for the killing of an
Apache. One of the principal reasons for this
trial was, perhaps, the fact that President Grant
wrote to Governor Safford stating that if the
men who participated in this massacre were not
brought to trial before the civil authorities, he
would proclaim martial law in Arizona. At all
events, the trial was had, and in his charge to the
jury Judge Titus, among other things, said :
"The Government of the United States owes
its Papago, Mexican and American residents
in Arizona protection from Apache spoliation
and assaults. If such spoliation and assaults are
persistently carried on and not prevented by the
Government, then its sufferers have a right to
protect themselves and employ a force large
enough for that purpose. It is also to be added
that if the Apache nation, or any part of it, per-
sists in assaulting the Papagoes, Mexicans or
Americans in Arizona, then it forfeits the right
of protection from the United States, whether
that right is the general protection which a Gov-
ernment owes all persons within its limits and
jurisdiction, or the special protection which is
due to prisoners of war.
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162 HISrOBT OF ARIZONA.
"Now, gentlemen, what is the evidence before
you on this branch of the question ? Have the
Apache Indians, and especially that portion of
them quartered near Oamp Grant on which the
deadly assault described in the indictment was
made on the 30th day of April last, been per-
sistently assailing, despoiling and murdering the
Papago, Mexican and American residents of
Arizona, and has this been prevented by the
United Statra ? The evidence is quite full on this
subject, and I submit to you whether it does or
does not prove that the Apache Nation, and
especially that portion of it on which the assault
charged in the indictment was made on the 30th
of April last, then and now is in hostility to all
the Papago, Mexican and American residents in
Arizona, including the defendants and such as
they ? Has this or has it not been continued for
years? Has it been attended with loss of life
and property? And has the Government of the
United States prevented this ? Does or does not
the evidence in the piresent qu^ion show that
the clothing, arms and other property of mur-
dered and despoiled Papago, Mexican and
American residents of Arizona have been found
in the possession of those on whom the assault
ehajged in the indictment was made; that an
obvious trail or Indian road leads from the place
or places of this murder and spoliation direct to
the encampment, and that these Indians, before
and since the assault charged in the indictment,
have admitted their participation in this murder
and spoliation? After this is shown, is there
any evidence that the United States Government
has stopped this, or had done so on the SOUi of
OtTTRAOES BY INDIANS. 163
April last 1 If you find that the evidence proves
these practices, you will find whether it proves
also that they were and are persistent. If you
find that the murder and spoliation had been or
were, on the 30th of April last, persistent, or if
you find that this murder and spoliation were
not persistent, you will find accordingly one of
the following conclusions :
"First: That the attack charged in the indict-
ment was or was not a justifiable act of defensive
or preventive hostilities, or
"Second: That it does or does not cast such
reasonable doubt on the motive in making the
assault charged in the indictment as will render
you unable to see whether the defendants were
actuated by murderous malice in making such an
assault. Accordingly as you find the affirmative
or negative of these conclusions, your verdict
will be guilty or not guilty."
It must be admitted that this charge was
eqiuvalent to instructions to acquit the defend-
ants, which was done.
Lieutenant Whitman seemed to have had re-
markable success in gaining the confidence of
the Indians, notwithstanding his moneymaking
proclivities, as he induced many of them, imder
their «hjef, Es-kim-in-zin, to return after the
outrage, believing that the military had no part
in the massacre, but soon one of the returning
parties by some blunder was fired upon by a
squad of soldiers, and the Indians fled to the
mountains, more hostile than ever.
The exterminating policies had received a fair
trial in Arizona and had been found to be a fail-
ure. A careful study of the Indians, their num-
164 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
bers two hundred years ago, and the numbers
^\'ithm the United States to-day, sets aside at
once the possibility of exterminating them.
This policy has been tried several times, but the
Indians continue as numerous as ever.
There had been killed by Indians within a
short time on the Pedro, Henry Long, Alex. Mc-
Kenzie, Sam Brown, Sinoms, and others ; on the
Santa Cruz, Wooster and wife, Sanders and
others; on the Sonoita, Pennington, Jackson,
Carroll, Rotherwell and others. These murders
were all laid to the Indians on the reservation,
but, as a matter of fact, Cochise and his band
were constantly raiding the coimtry.
During the winter of 1870-71, there was no
cessation to the amount of scouting conducted
against the Apaches, who resorted to a system of
tactics which had often been tried in tiie past,
and always with success. A number of simul*
taneous attacks were made at widely separated
points, evidently to confuse both the troops and
the settlers by spreading a vague sense of fear
all over the Territory, and imposing upon the
militaiy an exceptional amoimt of work and
hardship. Bourke says:
"Attacks were made in southern Arizona upon
the stage stations at the San Pedro, and the
Cienega, as well as the one near the Picacho, and
upon file ranches in the Babacomori Valley, and
in the San Pedro, near Tres Alamos. Then
came the news of a fight at Pete Kitchen's, and,
finally, growing bolder, the enemy drove off a
herd of cattle from Tucson itself, some of them
beeves, and others work oxen belonging to a
wagon train from Texas. Xjastly came the kill-
OUTRAOES BY IXDIAN8. 165
ing of the stage mail rider, between the town
and the Mission Church of San Xavier, and the
massacre of the party of Mexicans going down
to Sonora, which occurred not feir from the
**One of the members of this last party was a
beautiful young Mexican lady — Dona Trinidad
Aguirre — who belonged to a very respectable
family in the Mexican Republic, and was on her
way back from a visit to relatives in Tucson.
That one so yoimg, so beautiful and bright,
should have been snatched away by a most cruel
death at the hands of the savages, aroused the
people of all the country south of the Oila, and
nothing was talked of, nothing was thought of,
but vengence upon the Apaches.
"Lieutenant Howard B. Gushing was most ac-
tive at this time, and kept his troop moving with-
out respite. There were fights, and ambuscades,
and attacks upon Indian raneherias, and night
marches without number, several very success-
ful. When the work oxen of the Texans above
referred to were run off, the Apaches took them
over the steepest, highest and rockiest part of
the Sierra Santa Catalina. Cushing followed
closely, guided by Manuel Duran and others.
Progress was necessarily slow on account of the
difficulties of the trail. The only result of the
pursuit, however, was the recovery of the meat
of the stock which the Apaches had killed when
they reached the canyons under Trumbull's
Peak. Three of Cushing's party were hurt in
the ensuing fight, and several of the Indians were
killed and wounded."
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166 HISrOBT OF ABIZONA.
Lieutenant Gushing was afterwards killed by
the Indians, an account of which, given by
"On the 5th of May, 1871, Lieutenant Howard
B. Gushing, Third Cavalry, with several civil-
ians and three soldiers, was killed by the Chirica-
hua Apaches, under their famous chief, Cochise,
at the Bear Springs, in the Whetstone Moun-
tains, about thirty-five miles from Tucson and
about the same distance to the east of old Gamp
Crittenden. Gushing's whole force numbered
twenty-two men, the lai^er part of whom was
led into an ambuscade in the canyon containing
the spring. The fight was a desperate one, and
fought with courage and great skill on both sides.
Our forces were surrounded before a shot had
been fired; and it was while Gushing was en-
deavoring to lead his men back that he received
tihe wounds which killed him. Had it not been for
the courage and good judgment displayed by
Sergeant John Mott, who had seen a good deal
of service against the Apaches, not one of the
command would have escaped aUve out of the
canyon. Mott was in command of the rear-
guard, and, in coming up to the assistance of
Lieutenant Gushing, detected the Apaches mov-
ing behind a low range of hills to gain Gushing 's
rear. He sent word ahead, and that induced
Lieutenant Gushing to fall back. After Gush-
ing dropped, the Apaches made a determined
charge and came upon our men hand to hand.
The little detachment could save only those
horses and mules which were ridden at the mo-
ment the enemy made the attack, because the men
who had dismounted to fight on foot were unable
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OITTRAOES BY INDIANS. 167
to remount, such was the impetuosity of the rush
made by the Chiricahuas. There were enough
animals to 'ride and tie,' and Mott, by keeping
up on the backbone of the hills running along
the Babacomori Valley, was enabled to reach
Camp Crittenden without being surrounded or
"Inside of forty-eight hours there were three
troops of cavalry en route to Crittenden, and in
pursuit of the Apaches, but no good could be
effected. Major William J. Ross, at that time
in command of Camp Crittenden, was most
energetic in getting word to the various military
commands in the southern part of the country,
as well as in extending every aid and kindness
to the wounded brought in by Mott.
"When the combined force had arrived at
Bear iSprings, there was to be seen every evi-
dence of a most bloody struggle. The bodies of
Lieutenant Cushing and comrades lay where
they had fallen, stripped of clothing, which the
Apaches always carried off from their victims.
In all parts of the narrow little canyon were the
carcasses of ponies and horses half-eaten by the
coyotes and buzzards; broken saddles, saddle-
bags, canteens with bullet holes in them, pieces
of harness and shreds of clothing scattered
about, charred to a crisp in the flames which the
savages had ignited in the grass to conceal their
line of retreat.
"Of how many Apaches had been MUed, there
was not the remotest suggestion to be obtained.
That there had been a heavy loss among the In-
dians could be suspected from the signs of bodies
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168 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA.
having been dragged to certain points, and there,
apparently, put on pony back.
"The Chiricahuas seemed to have ascended
the canyon imtil they had attained the crest of
the range in a fringe of pine tynber; but no
sooner did they pass over into the northern foot-
hills than they broke in every direction, and did
not re-unite until near our boundary line with
Mexico, where their trail was struck and fol-
lowed for several days by Major Gerald Ru^ell
of the Third Oavalry. They never halted until
they regained the depths "of the Sierra Madre,
their chosen haunt, and towards which Russell
followed them as long as his broken down
animals could travel.
"Of the distinguished services rendered to
Arizona by Lieutenant Gushing, a book might
well be written. It is not intended to disparage
anybody when I say that he had performed her-
culean and more notable work, perhaps, than
had been performed by any other officer of cor-
responding rank, either before or since."
Lieutenant Gushing was one of the best and
bravest officers in Arizona, and his continued
campaigns against the hostiles had had a telling
effect. He was considered the most successful
Indian filter in the army; brave, energetic
and tireless, he followed the foe to their strong-
holds and there attacked them with vigor and
spirit, dealing tiiem blows the savages could not
withstand. In him Arizona lost one of her most
worthy defenders; a man who, at this critical
time, she could ill afford to part with. He was
the Ouster of Arizona, and it can be said of him :
"It is a part of life and the mystery of fate, that
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OUTRAGES BY INDIANS. 169
to all men who must have their will, there comes
a time when there is neither turning back nor to
the side. It must be on, and on, and on, to an
end that is either immortal or better to be forgot-
ten. And it is from such ends that the children
get eilber the story of shame, or the luster of a
name shining out on the dark night of the past as
a star of the greatest magnitude."
lieutenant Cushing belonged to a family which
won deserved renown during the Civil War. One
of his brothers blew up the ram Albemarle ; an-
other died moat heroically at his post of duly on
the battlefield of Oettysburg; another, enlisted in
the navy, died in the service.
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170 HISrOET OP ABIZONA.
CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILES.
C. B, Genung's Descbiption of Townsend's Ex-
pedition — ^Indians KiUi Herder and Steal
Herbert Bowers' Cattle — John Townsend
Appointed Captain of Purstjino Party —
Joined bt Pabti of Soldiers Under Lieu-
tenant MoBTON — Catch Indians and Kill
Thirtt-fivb — Rest of Indians Escape —
Again Catch and Kill Indians — ^Pursuers
Retubn to Prescott and ABE Banquetted —
FiFTT-six Indians Killed, and Almost Atj.
One of the most successful raids against the In-
diana by a volunteer party was made under the
command of John Townsend in June, 1&71, an ac-
coimt of which is published in the Los Angeles
"Mining Review" under date of May 13th, 1911,
by C. B. Oenung, who assisted in organizing the
expedition, and was Townsend's lieutenant,
which account follows :
"In June, lOTl, I was farming in Peoples Val-
ley, Arizona. Having occasion to go to Prescott
and my wife not feeling safe at the ranch with the
small force of men that I could leave behind, she
concluded to go with me as far as Ed Bowers'
ranch and station and visit with Mrs. Bowers
until I returned. The Bowers family were our
nearest neighbors at that time, and they were
twelve miles away on the road to Prescott in
Skull Valley. I took with me "W. H. Smith, my
wife's brother, and a young man named Boyce
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dTSZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINffT HOSTILES. 171
for escort. We all stayed at Bowers' ranch the
first ui^t, and the next morning as we were leav-
ing, my wife called after me: 'Don*t forget the
indigo. ' She had sent me for indigo before and
I had forgotten it.
"I had told my wife that I would remain in
Prescott but one day and return the third day.
I had some business with the Quartermaster
which took me to Whipple where Herbert Bow-
ers was keei>ing the sutler store. I foxmd Her-
bert a very sick man, and, as he was a dear friend
of mine, I spent a good deal of time with him, try-
ing to cheer him up. He had a bad case of yellow
jaundice, and was in bed all the time that I stayed
"I got settled up with the Quartermaster and
fot my Toucher for what he owed me, and was
ack in Prescott late in tiie evening and had
everything ready to start home in the morning.
At 9 :30 1 started from the Diana Saloon — across
ihe plaza to where I slept. Right out on the plaza
I came upon Herbert Bowers standing there like
a statue. My first impression was that he was
out of his head. I asked him what in the world
he was doing there. He said, 'Charley, the In-
dians killed one of the herders and have gone with
a hundred and thirty-seven head of horses, mules
and cattle from my Agua Fria ranch. The other
herder escaped the Indians and brought the word
to the ranch. Nathan, my brother, sent a courier
in to me, also one to Camp Verde. I have applied
at Whipple for help, but there are no men or ani-
mals there to go ; all I can get there is one old
"I said to him : 'You go to Brook & Lind's sta-
ble and get all the saddle horses they have and
172 HiaroBT of abizona.
have them brought down and tied here at the
Diana Saloon, then go to C. €. Bean and tell him
that I want lus buckskin team — one for me and
the other for Smith, my brother-in-law. '
"I walked into the saloon and told the people
what had happened, and called for volunteers to
go out and get the stock back. The Diana Saloon
stood on the comer where the St. Michael Hotel
now stands, and there were several more saloons
right along side by side. The news spread like a
flash and &ere were plenty of men to go but they
had no horses. Just two men who were willing to
go had horses, Tom Rodriek of Kirkland Valley,
and Jeff Davis of Davis ranch on the head of the
Hassayampa. I saw John McDerwin in the
crowd and called him to one side and asked him if
he would tell my wife the next day that I had
gone after Indians and not to expect me back un-
til she saw me, which he agreed to do. By this
time the horses began to come to the hitching
rack. I singled out the men that I wanted, and
we all got some lunch of whatever kind we could
scrape together, and at eleven o'clock — ^just an
hour and a half from the time I left the saloon to
go to bed — tiiere were eleven of us mounted and
ready to make the most successful raid against
the Apaches that ever started from Northern
"I had met John Townsend and been intro-
duced the day that I stayed in Prescott, and as
he was an Indian fighter I made inquiry for him
before we got started and learned that he had
started for his ranch on the lower Agua Fria,
which was about twenty miles below Bowers'
ranflh ; that he had gone via the "Vickers ranch
which was on the then only wagon road from
CmZEN EXPEDITIONS AQAINST H08TILE8. 173
Preseott to the Agua Fria. I wished to take the
short trail, so sent two men via Vickers' ranch to
ask Townsend to join us, which he did, and we
were all at the Bowers ranch before daylight. As
several of our horses needed shoeing, we got the
negro blacksmitii who was working for Bowers
and had a good shop, to fit the shoes, while the
men drove them on as fast as three hammers
could do it
"By sunrise we all had had breakfast, and had
a sack of flour, some bacon and coffee that we had
got at the ranch. Just as we were ready to start
I called all to attention and suggested that we
elect Townsend captain of the company, which
was agreeable to us all. Then we were off, six:-
teen of us, having picked up four men besides
Townsend in the Agua Fria settlement.
"What provisions and some cooking tools that
we had were packed on tih.e old Government mule.
"We travelled pretty fast after we got strung
out on the trail of the stock until about noon,
when we stopped to water and rest our horses.
Tom Rodriek had been in town drinking pretty
hard for several days and was very anxious to
have a drink of whiskey, thinking perhaps some
of the men had a bottle in their saddle bags. We
all had saddle bags on our saddles those days.
Tom called to Townsend and said, *Captain, if I
cant get a drink 111 die sure.' Townsendre-
plied : *Oh ! not so bad as that, Tom. ' Says Tom :
'I bet you two hundred dollars 111 die in fifteen
minutes if I don't get a drink.' He lived, al-
though he didn't get the drink.
"The first night we camped on a sidehill where
there was good grass, and the next morning we
were moving by daybreak, and about sunrise we
174 HIOTORT OP ARIZONA.
ran into a soldier camp where they were just eat-
ing their breakfast. The soldiers had started
from Camp Verde and had a Mexican for guide
who had been a prisoner with the Apaches for a
number of years, and he knew about where to
cross the mountains to strike the trail that he
knew the Indians would have to take the stock
over. So when he struck the trail they made
camp, where we came upon them. There were
twenty-eight enlisted men, a doctor, and a young
lieutenant named Morton, in charge. The lieu-
tenant was fresh from West Point, and as we rode
along, Townsend being in the lead, the lieutenant
asked one of our party who the leader was, and
was told that Mr. Townsend, the man in the lead,
was our captain. The lieutenant called to Town-
send and walked out a little way toward him, as
Townsend puUed his horse a little to one side and
stopped. He said:* Mr. Townsend, my name is
Morton, and I suppose we are all out on the same
business and I would like to accompany you.'
*A11 right,' said Townsend, 'come ahead,' and he
"We had a bad, slow trail all forenoon, climb-
ing over a rough malapai country, and for long
stretches the mescal was so thick that two horses
could not pass on the trail. 'Hie mescal leaves
were as sharp as needles and as hard as steel. It
would ruin a horae if he happened to run against
"The soldiers soon came stringing along and
overtook us about the time that we got to the top
of what was known as Ox Yoke Mountain. There
we found several ox yokes which had been taken
ofE of oxen that had been run off in other raids
by the Ijidians. The Mexican guide told us that
CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILEa. 175
it was twelve miles down the mountainside to the
Verde river from that point.
"Here the Mexican guide said that the Indians
were liable to fire the brush ahead of us; so we
rushed our horses down the steep brushy trail as
fast as we could, but we had not gone more than
two or three miles before we saw the smoke ris-
ing down the canyon below us. The trail led
down the north side of a ridge which was cut with
steep gulches, and as it was on the north side and
the mountain was very steep the brush and grass
did not bum very readily. Still nearly all of the
soldiers were cut off by the fire and had to leave
the trail and make their way around as best they
could, everybody for himself.
' ' We reached the Verde river about two o 'clock
in the afternoon, horses and men all pretty tired
and hungry, but all safe and soimd. We crossed
the river at the mouth of the east fork, and
camped to let our horses rest and graze while we
got something to eat ourselves. Here we scoured
the coimtry thoroughly to be sure that the In-
dians had not divided tiieir party, but satisfied
ourselves that the whole lot of them had gone the
one trail up the east fork. About four o'clock
we started again on the trail, which led up the
river for several zniles, then turned up the face of
a great table mountain which was one mass of
lava boulders and the trail so steep that most of
the men had to dismount. Townsend had told
me about this place, having learned of it from
some soldiers who had been there and had to turn
back as the Indians had rolled boulders down
from the top until the whole face of the moimtain
seemed to be flying rocks of all sizes. The moim-
tain is several miles long, and from the top
176 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
down for many hundred feet it is a perpen-
dicular bluff, then slopes to the river below.
The trail ran along under this bluff, and
the Indians could stop an army from passing
along that trail if they were to throw over even
small sized boulders. Several parties before us
had gone as far as the foot of this mesa where the
trail 8tiu^:ed up, and then had given up the job
and turned badi. When we got to this point we
all bunched up and some of the men started up
the trail. Townsend let them go a little while
and then called them back; told one of the
soldiers to fire a shot to recall those that were out
of hearing of his voice. When the men were all
turned back we strung out single file, which was
the way we travelled s^ the time, and before sun-
down were back at the place we had left several
"Townsend said to the lieutenant, 'Have some
of your men fire a shot or two at a mark.' Town-
send wanted the shots fired, but did not want the
citizens to waste their ammunition. He thought
it did not make so much difference whether the
soldiers had ammunition or not. When we over-
took the soldiers that morning Townsend was
mad^ for up to that time the citizens and soldiers
when they hunted Indians together never could
get along agreeably. The officers had always
wanted to boss the job, and made a failure of it
every time. So far Lieutenant Morton had not
made any suggestions at all, but had just come
along, which was agreeable to Townsend and all
the rest of us.
"We built up big camp fires, fired a few shots,
put out a strong guard and made down our beds,
which among the citizens consisted of saddle
CanZEN EXPEDinONB AGAINST HOSTTLES. 177
blankets and saddle for pillow. We knew the
Indians were watching our every move from the
high rough points wmch surrounded us on all
sides. We got our suppers and still kept the fires
burning bright, and all lay down to rest if not to
sleep. The guard -was changed every two hours,
and at two o 'clock the fires were all out, and as
noiselessly as possible we mounted and retraced
our steps to the foot of the big mountain which
we reached just as the light began to show in the
east Noiselessly we began to climb up the face
of that mountain, and. by the time it was light
enough to see to shoot, we were all over the worst
of it ; but we had now several miles to travel along
the face of the mountain directly under that
great bluff which seemed to hang over in places.
'*It was very slow travelling until we got past
this big black mesa, then we had rolling hills to
cross with occasionally a pretty rough canyon.
About six o'clock the Mexican guide, who was
ahead, threw up a hand and we were all on the
alert. There had just gone over the ridge about
a mile ahead of us an Indian on a horse. We
were then in si^t of quite a large piece of com-
paratively level land and could see eottonwood
trees in the bottom along the East Fork, which at
this place proved to be dry. Townsend and I
jumped off our horses to tighten the cinches on
our saddles, which let several of those that were
in the line behind na go by, and they were going
as fast as they could. Among the others that
passed us was tiie lieutenant.
"When we had travelled about a quarter of a
mile, Townsend ahead of me, he saw an Indian
track in the dry dirt which bore off the main trail
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178 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
to the right, and we followed it as fast as our
horses and eyes would allow, and of course all
who were behiiid us followed ua Across the flat
that we had seen from a distance we all went as
fast as our horses could carry us, and on the op-
posite side of the river we ran into an Indian
camp pretty well hidden in the brush. The
Indians had most of them gotten out of their
camp and were making for the hills through the
thick brush, but we were shooting everyone we
could see that was near enough to make it worth
while trying our guns on.
"As we were crossing the dry river bed I
noticed one Indian running apparently behind a
hill, and I started for the top of the hill as fast as
I could, and just as I readfied the top I caught
sight of a big fellow running down a gulch.
I dropped him, and as he fell, I saw another in a
bunch of oak brush about seventy-five yards
away. I shot him, and he fell in the brush.
Among the soldiers was a Corporal Flynn who
had done duty for a long time between Camp
Verde and Prescott as mail carrier, and Flynn
saw the last Indian that I had shot when be fell,
Flynn having followed me up the hill. FIjTm
said, 'you hit, but I think you only wounded him. '
"So I told Flynn if he would ride up on a little
point of a hill that overlooked the place where the
Indian fell so that he could see if he ran out, and
at the same time cover my horse, which I left
where we stood, that I would go into the brush
and see what I had done to the red. Flynn sta-
tioned himself where he could see all around, but
could see nothing of the Indian, so I advanced
cautiously into t£e brush and in a few minutes
heard shots off to my right. I looked and there
id By Google
CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILBS. 179
were seven or eight soldiers about two hundred
yards away, and then I heard a bullet strike a
rock close to me. Flynn began to yell like a
crazy man, and said: 'What are you d — d boys
doing? Trying to kill a white manf ' The sol-
diers had seen my black hat moving in the bushes
and mistook me for an Indian, and had all taken
a shot without dismounting. I found the Indian
who had crawled into the thick brush; but he
was a good Indian.
"We had spent so much time looking for the
Indian that l^ere was no use in doing anything
but to go and find the balance of the people. We
returned to the Indian camp, and were the last
to get there.
"Morton, the trailer, some citizens and a few
soldiers had struck a big trail while running on
the main trail that we had been following. This
trail crossed the main trail at right angles and
led up a small ravine to another Indian camp,
but much smaller than the one we had struck.
The lieutenant had no rifle, but killed a big buck
Apache with his forty-^five — about the first one
that was killed. Altogether we had killed thirty-
five Indians that we Imew were dead. We plun-
dered the camp and about five o'clock took the
trail and followed it until dark.
"After we had eaten something and were sit-
ting around camp, Townsend asked the trailer
what was the meaning of 'Wapop' in the Indian
languf^. He said it meant * Oh, Father I ' Then
Townsend told of shooting a young Indian about
eighteen or twenty years old and breaking his
leg. The fellow grabbed hold of a brush and
Clled himself up, stood on one foot and slapped
breast and cri«i out: * Wapop! Wapop 1' two
IBO HISrOBT OF ARIZONA.
or three times before he got the second shot.
This was probably a white man who had been
with the Lidians so long that he had forgotten
his mother tongue, as all who saw the body said
it was much whiter than any Indian.
"The next morning we took the trail as soon
as we could see distinctly, not wishing to miss
any sidings, as we were on the rolling country
wMch we knew was the divide between the Bast
Verde and some other stream, and we were ex-
pecting the Indians to break up into small par-
ties as was their custom when followed and
pressed by the whites. However, this did not
happen in this instance, as we had completely
fooled them and put them entirely off their
guard by doubling back to the Verde from
the foot of the big mesa. It was very lucky the
Indian the men saw on horseback the day before
did not see us, or the alarm would have been
spread, and we should only have got the thirty-
"We traveled on a trot or lope for several
hours the morning of the fourth day out, through
cedar and juniper timber, over mesa and rolling
hills along the foot of the mountain. About ten
o'clock the leaders came right on to a big ran-
cheria in a big canyon, the banks of which were
so high and so near perpendicular that there
was no way of getting down into the canyon only
by single file down a narrow trail. The Indians
were getting away. I took in the situation at
a glance, and saw several Indians skulking into
a gulch that ran into the main gulch near their
camp. I forced my horse to jiunp down about
ten feet, where he landed on loose eloping dirt,
and made across the big gulch (which was about
CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AOAINST HOSTILES. 181
one hundred yards wide) up on to the mesa on
the opposite side, and made a dash to try to head
off the Iiidians that I had noticed Koing up the
mouth of the small side gulch. The mountain
to the west of them was so steep and bare of
brush that they dare not try to elimb it, and I
managed to get ahead of them and shot two.
One raised up in a sitting posture, and I was
about to give bim another shot when 'Hold on,
boys,' came from the corporaL He had been
right at my heels, the same as the day before.
'Hold on, boys! Don't waste your ammunition.
Ill finish him wid a rock ! '
"I had seen an Indian down the gulch when
I jumped off. to shoot the first one, and I tried to
watch the banks to prevent him from escaping ;
I had never taken my eyes off the place where I
saw him long enough for him to climb the steep
bank, and the mountain was too bare for him
to try that side. Several of the men had fol-
lowed up the gulch on foot from the Indian camp
at the mouth, and I had asked them to look care-
fully, which they thought they did, but none
found him. Still I would not give it up and
remained in my position. Finally a young fel-
low named John Bullard came in sight from
among the jumper trees and stopped right above
where I had lost sight of the Indian. I hailed
him and told him what I had seen, and for him
to get into the gulch and himt carefully while I
watched from where I stood.
"With as little delay as possible he climbed
down, and pretty soon a big boulder hid him
from me ; then a gun went off and Bullard 's head
came up from behind the boulder. Then down
it went again out of my sight. Then up came
1B2 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
the head again, and Bullard climbed up on the
boulder and, holding up bis right hand (from
which a part of the forefinger had been shot
oflE with tiie guard of his pistol a couple of years
before by Ijidians who waylaid him while he was
on his way from Townsend's ranch on the Agua
Fria), he halloos to me, 'I've got even with ttiat
finger. I'm very much obliged to you, Charley.'
On all the trip Bullard had not got an Indian
until this one.
"I went back now to the place where the In-
dians were camped, and the men had already
plundered the camp, looking for valuables, and
among other thin^ they had found a buckskin
sack with a lot of indigo balls in it, and that re-
minded me of what my wife had sent me to Pres-
cott for. I poured about a pound of them into
my saddle holsters to take home with me. The
men had captured several guns, a few buckskins,
etc., but notJiing of much value.
"In the scrap at the Indian camp Townsend
had a very narrow escape from an Indian bullet.
He was walking through some brush and was
within a few feet of a woimded Indian who was
lying behind a boulder, so that Townsend could
not see him, with his rifie cocked and sighted,
and if Townsend had taken one more step he
would have been within range, but Providence
was with him. Jeff Davis caught sight of the
Indian, called out to Townsend and stopped him,
and, in the same breath, finished the Indian. We
got a lot of roasted mescal and some horse meat
at this camp, and took up the trail again, which
led to the southeast from this point tibrough low
hills and long i
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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOeTILES. 183
"We had traveled some tliree or four hours
and were following a long, low grassy ridge which
was skirted on the south and west by a big wide
canyon which seemed to run far back into the
moimtain. The trail ran along the top of the
ridge, which in some places was quite narrow as
it wound around the head of some short gulch
that ran off toward the big valley below to the
east There was quite a little rise in this ridge
just before it pitched off into the large gulch
to the west of us, and as the Mexican trailer
rode nearly to the top of the ridge, he threw
up his hand and stopped and turned his horse
partly around. He had seen what he supposed
were two Indians on horses going ahead of us on
the same trail about six hundred yards in ad-
vance. Townsend slipped up and peeked over
the ridge, watched a very few moments, then
turned and came back and started down a very
steep gulch which we could see led to the big
wash. If we could get down it with our horses
we should not be in sight of the Indians until
we were close to them.
"Townsend had brought the gun that came
so near killing him and had several buckskins
laying across his saddle upon which rested the
two guns. As he passed me he started down
the gulch, dropped the Indian's gun, then
dumped the buckskins, and was cleared for ac-
tion. I had no plunder to dispose of except the
indigo, and I could not part with that, for my
wife sent me after it. That was a rough gulch,
but our horses were surefooted, and we landed
on the level ground side by side. Here the
groimd was soft, sandy land, and we turned our
horses loose and gave them the spur.
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IB^ HISrOBT OF ABIZONA.
"The Indians were going very slowly and ap-
peared to be asleep, for we were in plain sight
of them for as much as three hundred yards.
They were following the main trail and were
crossing a grassy flat with bimches of oak brush
scatterai here and there. We ran our horses
at full speed to within forty yards of them, and
both jumped off at the same time and fired. Both
of us shot the same Indian as he was nearest
to us, and we could see that he had a lo^ rifle
laying across the horse in front of him. We had
both noticed before we jumped off that there
were two on one horse, and at the crack of my
gun the nearest Indian pitched head foremost
off the horse, and with him went the gun and a
hifr quarter of horse meat that he had laying
across the horse^s withers.
"The other two Indians jumped off the horse
they were riding, and began firing at me, as I
was in the open groimd and Townsend was be-
hind a small bunch of grass brush and the In-
dians had the horse between them and Town-
seni They fired three or four shots at me, one
with a Henry rifie and the other with a six
shooter. I was jumping sidewise and trying to
reload my rifie when Townsend got in a Slot
and broke the right arm of the Indian who had
the rifle. Then they both started to run, keep-
ing as much as possible the brush between them
and us. They had run only a few steps when
they ran together, and the one with the six
shooter got the Henry rifle and gave the pistol
to the one with the broken arm. All of this time
I was trying to get a shot, but there was too much
brush and ihej were takmg advantage of it.
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CinZBN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILBS. 185
"Then we both made a dash for our horses.
Townsend's horse had stood still where he left
him, but mine had moved off a little way, and
I suppose he did the wise thing, for if he had
stood right beside me as the other horse did, he
might have been shot and killed. When I ran
toward the horse he became frightened and
would not let me catch him. When I realized that
I could not catch him readily, I started running
after the Indians. Townsend had started along
the side of a low hiU trying to get a shot, and at
the same time trying to head them off to give
me a chance. The Indians kept in tiie wash which
headed about one-quarter of a mile from where
we shot the first one. Along the wash on each
side was a growth of oak brush higher than a
man's head, which prevented Townsend from
getting a shot. Townsend was on the left of the
Indians, which made it necessaiy for him to turn
in his saddle in order to use his gim. He said
if he had been on the other side he could have
had plenty of shots at them.
"At the head of the gulch there was a low
divide, and there the Indians separated. One
ran down the gulch and the other through some
brush and was out of sight, but Townsend kept
in si^t of the one with the rifle and followed
him for something like a mile before he got a
good show to shoot. Then he hit him in the back
of the head and killed him instantly. When
Townsend rode up to where the Indian lay he
took hold of his ankle to pull him down out of
some brush, and the grain of his hide slipped
like he had been scalded. When I came up to
Townsend he was examining the Henry rifle,
and he asked me if I had seen the wounded In-
186 HiaroBY of abizona.
dian, which, of course, I had not. He called
my attention to the way the hide had slipped
on the dead Indian's leg, and while we were com-
menting on it the balance of our party began to
show up on the hill about half a mile back on
our traU. We got up in sight and they were all
soon with us. We desired to go back to the
big wash that we had crossed in overtaking the
Indians, to camp, as it was then about sundown
and we knew there was water and feed there.
On our way back I was riding next to Townsend,
the other men having caught my horse and
brought him along. I said, 'Townsend, why
didn't you shoot when you jumped off your
horse ?' His reply was, 'Why didn't you shoot f*
I said, 'I kUled that big Indian all ri^t,' and
we both claimed to have shot the Indian. When
we got back to where he lay, we examined the
body and found the small Henry rifle hole, and
the bullet must have passed through his heart,
while my big Sharp's bullet had passed through
right between his shoulders. We had both fired
at the same time, and we bolii thought the other
had not fired. Townsend said to me, ' How many
have you killed f I said, 'Two yesterday and
two this morning.' 'Well,' he replied, 'you count
this one. That shot would have killed a big
bunch if they had been in line.' 'How many
have you gotf I asked. 'Eight,' was the an-
swer, 'and one gone with his right arm all shot
to pieces. We will track him up in the morning
and that will be nine for me. ' The gun that had
caused us both to shoot at the same Indian
proved to be the herder's gun that was killed
when the herd was taken. The horse that he
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CmZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINOT H0STILE8. 187
rode belonged to the Bowers ranch, and the other
horse belonged to the late Robert Postle. It
was quite a noted race horse. The whole com-
mand had sat and watched Townsend and me
until the first shots, then came on as fast as pos-
"One of the soldiers had noticed a road leadiuf;
up tiie mountainside across the valley some eight
or ten miles away, and recognized it as a road
that he had traveled several years ago, and said
that it led from old Camp Reno on Tonto Oreek
to Green Valley. That was the first that we had
an idea where we were at. From what I can
learn from people who have lived in that coim-
try, the creek that we were camped on is now
known as Wild Rye.
"The next morning we were out as soon as
we coidd see and tried to locate the wounded
Indian. We found his track where he had
crawled through the brush and skulked along
for nearly half a mile, then in some way he built
a signal fire and other Indians had come to him
during the night and taken him away. So Town-
send only counted eight for the trip. After sat-
isfying ourselves that there was no show to find
the wounded Indian, we took the trail and about
ten o'clock struck Tonto Creek and the old
wagon road before mentioned. The Indian trail
led down the creek to a point below a small
canyon that the road was built around. There
the Indians had left the road and creek and taken
to the hills again, going east Here we halted
for the first time to consult. As our horses were
in very bad shape (several being entirely or par-
tially barefooted) and our grub all gone, that
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IBS HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA.
is, the citizens' grub, we concluded that it would
be folly to go on further on the trail, and we also
realized that the Indians were thoro»]^hly roused,
as we had seen smokes by day and fires by night
on the mountains for the past twenty- four hours.
"Some of the party were in favor of going
back and trying to get home via Camp Verde.
It was also suggested by some that we might as
well take our back trail. The suggestion made
some merriment among the wise ones, and Town-
send spoke up and said five himdred men could
not get back by the way we came without losing
half of them. Townsend hunted up the soldier
who had recognized the wagon road the day be-
fore, and learned what he could about the coun-
try and the road. The soldier had been over
the road but once, but he thought we were not
more than a few miles from Old Camp Reno
and from there there had been wagons over the
Reno Moimtain road. We concluded to go to
McDowell, and as we began to mount our horses,
Townsend remarked, 'We will have to be on
our guard from now on or somebody may get
hurt. ' That was the most talk that he had made
on the trip at any one time, and the lieutenant
had not said that much so as to he heard by the
citizen part of the crowd, and we all began to
think he was all right. Even Jeff Davis had
quit calling him 'coiT)oral' when he had occasion
to address him, and called him 'Mr. Morton.'
We were halted on a mesa of a considerable
extent while we were consulting about the road
to take. The mesa was covered with prehistoric
ruins of some kind, and they had covered many
acres of ground. We had a good road until we
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GinZBN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST HOSTILES. 189
reached the old abandoned post. We passed a
few miles above the post what had been a gar-
den irrimted with water taken out of Tonto
Creek. This was done by soldiers while the post
was occupied, we afterward learned. We reached
the old ruined post about noon, having traveled
some twenty or twenty-five miles that morning,
uid had spent a considerable time htmting for
the Indian with a broken arm. That Indian,
building a fire with one hand was a puzzle to us
all. He must have had matches.
"As we found a fine large stream or spring
near the old camp we concluded to camp there
that night to rest our horses. Several of the
citizens had walked all the morning to favor their
horses. My own horse was very lame, and the
first thing that I did after reaching the camp
was to hunt up the old blacksmith shop, and I
found plenty of shoes that were good enough
to keep a horse's foot ofE the ground. I also
picked up quite a lot of nails, most of which
had been bent, but I got enough to put a shoe
onto my own horse and a lot to spare for the
others. While several other men and I were
hunting for the nails, we were startled by seeing
some of the fellows in camp run to their horses,
while others were running to camp from where
they had been picking blackberries, of which
there was quite a patch at this place, — the first
that I had ever seen on the Pacific coast growing
wild. The excitement was caused by a big cloud
of dust about two miles up the McDowell road —
just at the mouth of a canyon that the road
passes through before it reaches the open mesa
country. Oxir first impression was that it was
190 HISTORY OF AKIZONA.
Indians coming with a band of stolen stock, as
we could see nothing but the dust, and a glimpse
of something moving. Only a few of us had
OUT horses when we heard a bugle call, and the
soldiers said it was a conomand to charge, and I
guess it was, for here they came, just tearing
Sie earth imtil they were within about four hun-
dred yards. Then they subsided and walked
their horses into camp, and none of them a bit
hurt. It turned out to be a company of cavalry
sent out from McDowell to kill Indians, and as
our soldiers were all moimted on white horses,
they were mistaken for a band of sheep, and
the officer in command had the horn blown — I
suppose to scare them away so they would not
eat him. The officer stopped and talked a while
with our men, and made a strong talk with some
of the hoys, trying to induce them to join him
and go after the ones we had lost. He went so
far as to ofier to dismoimt some of bis men
and send them back to McDowell, and mount the
citizens on the fresh horses. There were men
in our party who would have liked to have ac-
cepted the offer had it not been for the bugle.
The name of this officer I do not recall, but the
guide was Hi Jolly, one of the men imported to
the United States with the camels which were
brought to Texas in the early fifties. When the
McDowell officer struck the trail of the Indians
where we had left it, he took the back track —
the trail that we had come to Tonto Creek by,
instead of following the Indians. He was after-
ward court-martialed for that. Hi JoUy made
the complaint, I believe, which brought him be-
fore a court-martial. Hi Jolly was a good and
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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AGAINST H08TILES. 191
careful guide and scout, and died a few years
since at Quartzsite, Tuma C7ounty, Arizona.
"Our party slept at the Old Post that night,
and we could see signal fires in every direction
on the mountains. The nest day we started to
make McDowell. Townsend spoke to the lieu-
tenant, whom we had all learned to like hy this
time, and told him to have his men keep close
up and not get scattered as there was liable
to be Indians trying to cut off any who might
lag behind. It was a long rough ride over the
Bono Moimtains, and we were all tired after
the excitement of the ehase and our horses were
badly fagged and sore footed. We scattered
out on both sides of the road and after we came
in sight of McDowell (which we could see
ten or twelve miles away) I was riding on the
upper side of the road and Townsend was below
the road. I noticed him working his way up
toward me and when he got alongside he said
to me, 'Suppose they don't give us rations when
we get down there,' nodding at the post, 'what
shall we do?' I replied, 'I don't know.' Says
he, in an undertone, *We will take the post,'
and turned to go back to his place in the line
of march. As he started off, I said, 'All right,
Townsend.* I will say here that we had been
living off tiie soldiers' rations after the third
day out and had eaten everything they had the
day before, except some mescal that we had
found in the Indism camps.
"We didn't have to take the post, however,
as the commanding officer did everything he
could for our comfort — gave us good quarters
for ourselves and horses, and an order for any-
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192 HISTOBX OF ARIZONA.
thinK that was in the commiBsary. I believe his
name was Major Dudley. We rested at McDow-
ell two days, then started for Prescott via Black
Canyon and Townsend's Banch, where Town-
send foiind his family all safe and well. This
woman had been staying at the ranch alone with
her small children and no neighbors for several
miles. The ranch is more than forty miles from
Prescott and right in the heart of the Indian
country, but she had dogs and guns. The lady
raised a large family, and is living somewhere
in this country now. The Indians killed Town-
send some time after; shot him at long range,
but didnt dare to go near him to get his horse.
The faithful animal stayed with him several
days, then went home. They found the body by
back tracking the horse. Townsend had seen
signs of a large party of Indians in the country,
and, having no neighbors to go with him, he went
after them single-handed, as he had done many
times before. In all he killed thirty-five Apaches
in the five years that he had lived on the Ag\i&
"Our party broke up next day at the Bowers
ranch, having been gone eleven days and recov-
ered all but fourteen head of the horses and
mules stolen. The soldiers went to Camp Verde,
and those of the citizens that didn't belong in
the Agua Fria Valley, returned to Prescott,
where we found the citizens organizing a search-
ing party to go out and find and bury us. As
they didn't know that we had joined issues with
the soldiers, they concluded that the Indians
had got us into some ti^t place like the Black
Mesa on the East Fork of the Verde, and killed
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CITIZEN EXPEDITIONS AQAIN8T HOffTILGB. 193
US all. I got to Preacott about ten o'clock in
the moTuing and was preparing to start that day
and drive tiirough to SkuU Valley, where I had
left my wife and baby nearly two weeks before
to be gone only two nights, but my friends got
around me and persuaded me to stay until next
day as they were preparing an entertainment
for me and the balance of the party. That was
a day and night of great rejoicing in Prescott,
it being the first time that the Indians had been
followed, overtaken and severely punished by
fiither citizens or soldiers for their crimes. It
was really the beginning of a long fought battle
in which the Indians got the worst of it every
time. While we were at McDowell we occupied
the quarters of a company of cavalry that had
gone to meet General Crook, who had just come
to the country, and was on a tour of inspection
of its geography, which he accomplished by going
to every military post before he started his cam-
paign, which ended so successfully.
"When I had put my team back in Brook &
Lind's stable, I walked down across the plaza,
and someone introduced me to a Mr. John Dun,
from Virginia City, Nevada. We talked a few
minutes and he asked me to come into the store
a minute (we were standing in front of Levy
Bashford's store). Dim said: 'Mr. Bashford,
give me that gun, if you please. ' Bashford went
and brought out a new Winchester rifle, one of
the latest models. Mr. Dun passed the gun to
me and said : * See if that is any good. If it is,
keep it.' I certainly kept it until it was burned
with my house and all its contents in Salt River
Valley. That act of Dun must have suggested
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191 HI8I0BT <
something, for the citizens of Prescott presented
John Townsend with a gun just like it, with
appropriately engraved plates on the stock, and
also presented Lieutenant Morton with a pair of
gold-mounted forty-five pistols, properly en-
graved. I will say that the older officers at
Verde had sent Morton out as a lark, not expect-
ing him to accomplish an3iliing, and were having
a lot of fun about it at first, but when he was
gone longer than he was rationed for, they be-
gan to get uneasy about 'the boy' as they called
him when he first left them. When he returned
it was a different name he bore.
"The ni^t's entertainment consisted, first, of
a wine supper, the table being the full length of
a new store that Bashford was building. In
the center of the table was a row of wine baskets
set end to end the whole length of the table.
This wine was Hammond 's Port Wine, — the first
I ever saw. The first course served was wine,
and then Judge Howard made a little speech,
and winked with both eyes. Then we nad a
course of wine, then a short speech from R. C
MoCormick, and another coxirse of wine. We
had short speeches and wine until most of the
party went wine-ding home. The old Preseott
pioneers did do things right when they started.
"The next morning, having my load aU ready
the night before, I started with William H.
Smith and Charles Boyce for Skull Valley. Ar-
riving at the Bowers station where there were
several military officers sitting on the porch, I
drove up alongside of the steps, and as my wife
and Mrs. Bowers came down the steps, I handed
my wife the holsters that I had put the indigo
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CITIZEN EXPEDmONS A0AIN8T HOSTIIfS. 195
balls in at the second fight, and said to her : ' Here
is the indigo, wife. I had a h — 1 of a time toget
it. ' The next day I got home to Peoples Val-
ley, having been gone nineteen days, when it was
my intention on leaving home to be away only
five days. There I f omid John Burger sxiffering
badly from some wounds that he had received
at the hands of the Apaches on April 1st of that
year, when his companion, H. WyckofE, was killed
while he and Burger were on their way from
Peeples Valley to Wickenburg. Burger had
three balls in his right side and was shot throu^
the left thigh, which woimd crippled him for
life. The woimds were nearly all healed when
I left him and he was getting around a little
on crutches. When I returned the wounds in
his side were badly inflamed and were full of
proud flesh. One rib had been shot entirely
in two and the ends of the rib were growing
together nicely when I left him, but when I got
the inflammation down and the proud flesh
burned out of the wound, I found there were
little ulcers formed on the ends of the new bone.
I cut them off with my pocket iaiife, and with
such attention as I was able to give him, Burger
was out of bed and quite well in a short time.
He was one of the early settlers of Phoenix, and
was killed accidentally in his own min on Hum-
bug Creek. His wife still lives in Phoenix.
"Altogether we killed fifty-six Indians, and
fot all of the stock back but fourteen head — and
Irs. Genung got her indigo."
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HISrOBY OF ARIZONA.
INDIAN TROUBLES, THE MILITABT, MUBDBKS
Caopobnia LEOisLATintE Passes Resolution
Relatinq to Indian Afpaibs in Arizona —
General Stonem AN Superseded by General
■Crook — Newspaper Criticism op General
Stoneman — Murders by Mexican Outlaws
— ^Repbisaib — Murderers Lynched — Set-
tlement OP Valley op San Pedro by Mark
Aldbich^Mobe Indian Outbages — Roads
Built by Stoneman — Fiohts of Captain
Moore and Captain Russell With Indians
— General Crook Takes Command.
Arizona and the West were anxious that the
Apaches should be conquered at once, because
about this time it began to dawn upon the West
that Arizona was a great mineral country. The
California Legislatiire in 1871 passed the follow-
ing resolution :
"Joint Resolutions of the Legislature of Cali-
fornia relating to Indian Affairs in the Terri-
tory of Arizona :
"WHEREAS, we are fully assured that the
following statements are true :
"That the inhabitants of the Territory of Ari-
zona are now, and for years past have been, the
victims of the most cruel oub'ages at the hands
of the Apache Indians ;
"That hundreds of them, including women
and children, have been murdered by fiiese sav-
ages within the last few years ;
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INDIAN TBOIJBLBB. 197
* * That neither homes nor property in that Ter-
ritory, outside its principal towns, are safe from
savage incursions ;
"That in but exceptional places can any high-
road be traveled without great danger ;
"That many of the citizens of our own State,
while there on business, have fallen victims to
these ladians ;
"That at no time in the history of that Terri-
tory have the Indians been more hostile, or the
lives and property of the people less safe, than
within the past two months ;
"That the nation is rich enough to aflford, and
stronfr enough to enforce, protection to its peo-
ple living in its own Territory and under its own
flag, as well as those abroad in other lands ;
"That for the murder of the fewest number
of its citizens who have been slain by these sav-
ages in Arizona in any two months in the last
two years, the United States Government would
have declared war against every Power in Europe
had its citizens been so murdered there for want
of proper protection from European Powers;
"That the feeling and belief are imiversal on
tiie part of the people of this State, and we be-
lieve of the Pacific Slope, that when General
Crook was sent to Arizona, he was the right man
in the right place;
"That he is as humane as enei^etic, and if al-
lowed sufficient means and given the discretion
to which his experience in the management of
Indian Affairs entitles bim , and not interfered
with in his operations, he will, in a brief period,
arrest this reign of terror and blood, and give
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198 HI8T0BT (
security to the long-sufEerinj; people of tiuB Ter-
ritory ; and
"WHEREAS, we do most seriously believe
that in all the land no such prompt and efficient
measures are required for the protection of our
people as in the Territory of Arizona, THERE-
"1. BE IT RESOLVED BY THE SENATE
(the Assembly concurring), that it is the duty
of the Govermnent of the United States to give
the moat prompt and efficient protection to the
people of Arizona against the Apache Indians;
that all attempts to treat with or otherwise ap-
pease them until they are made to feel the power
of the Government, will prove futile in the future
as they have in the past, and must result only in
encouraging these savages to continue deeds of
"2. That in no other way can this protection
be so promptly and efficientiy extended to our
suffering brethren in Arizona as by furnishing
General Crook with ample means and by giving
him the largest discretion on the course to be
pursued toward the savages.
"3. That the President of the United States
be, and he is hereby, urged and implored to pre-
vent further interference with the military oper-
ations of General Crook, otherwise than by aid-
ing his designs, until these savages are subdued
and the people of Arizona are made secure in
their lives, homes and property.
*"4. That his Excellency, the Governor of this
State, be requested to telegraph these resolutions
and the preamble to the same to the President of
the United States; that he cause to be sent copies
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INDIAN TBOTJBLES. 19&
of the same to each of the Senators and Repre-
sentatives in Congress of the FacMc States and
Territories, and to each of the Oovemors of the
same ; and that our Senators in Congress be in-
structed and our Representatives be requested
to urge upon the Government at Washington
such action in the premises as is indicated by
The resolutions reflected the will of the citizens
of Arizona, and showed the temper of the people
of the Golden State and the West generally.
General Stoneman was superseded by General
Crook through the influence of Governor Saf-
ford, and, as far as I can see, he was much mis-
judged. The following, from the Los Angeles
"Daily Star" of May ©th, 1871, is one of the
many harsh criticisms which were indulged,
in against him at that time :
"REMOVAL OF GENERAL STONEMAN.
"There must be something very peculiar in
the atmosphere of Arizona, as it certainly is very
unhealthy down that way for military command-
ers. Scarcely does one get installed in office,
and certainly before he has become acquainted
with the peculiarities of the country and the in-
terests of its inhabitants, than he is ranoved,
and another takes his place — ^to be, in his turn,
summarily sent to the right about. The Terri-
tory was organized in 1863, but it was well on
in 1664 before the 'outfit' reached the country,
and the formal declaration of the organization
of the cotmtry made, which took place at old Fort
Whipple, on what was known as Postle's ranch.
During these seven years we think we are safe
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200 HI8T0RT OF ABIZONA.
in saying that there were more commanders in
Arizona than one could count on his fingers with-
out repeating. We know of three changes hav-
ing been made in less than one year — how many
since we can scarcely count. The result of these
changes has always been unfortunate for the
country as the plans of the predecessor were gen-
erally upset by the successor, and there was a
change ^I around, during which the war against
the enemy was relaxed.
"Well, we have now another change, and that,
as usual, before the incumbent has become prop-
erly acquainted with his charge. We see by the
papers from Arizona that Qeneral Stoneman is
on a tour of inspection of the Territory, the sec-
ond since his appointment. His fault seems to
have been that he was too ready to give expres-
sion to a hastily formed opinion, and to act on
what he thus believed to be for the economical
administration of the aftairs of his command,
rather than as it turned out, for its efficiency.
He went there with the very best intentions, as
was testified to by the 'Miner,' and as, indeed, it
was to be expected. But on making his first tour
of inspection or investigation, he came rather
suddenly to the conclusion that because, travel-
ing with a numerous escort, he was not attacked
by the Apaches, the coxintry was perfectly peace-
able, the alleged outrages by the Apaches were
ma^iified, if not manufactured for sensational
purposes as well as interested motives, and, act-
ing on this conviction, he so reported to IJie Gov-
ernment and began dismantling camps and send-
ing the soldiers out of the coxmtry. A greater
mistake was never made. It was worse than the
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INDIAN TBOUBLES. 201
imbecilHy of poor Mason. Had he made himself
acquainted with the habits and practices of the
Indians, consulted the wants of the people who,
for years had been struggling to maintain the
country, almost unaided, for the United States,
and benefited by the experience of the many
good and true men in the Territory, he never
would have made that indiscreet report, much
less would he have attempted to carry his recom-
mendations into effect. But he turned a deaf
ear to all remonstrances, ignored the opinions of
the people, acted on his hastily formed conclu-
sions, and permitted the Indians almost to gain
the ascendancy in the country. For the past few
months the Indian depredations have been more
extensive and fatal than at any other period
since the American occupation. The result is,
he is now deprived of his command by order of
the President, leaving behind him in the Terri-
tory a reputation as the most impopular com-
mander .^zona has ever had."
It was not only the Apaches the early settlers
had to contend with, but the Mexican outlaws as
well, who, escaping to Sonora, were protected by
Governor Pesquiera. The following are well
authenticated incidents of Mexican outlawry,
some of which met well merited pimishment :
On December 24th, 1870, tiiree men, Eeid,
Lytle, and Oliver, were murdered at Mission
Camp by three Mexicans, who escaped to Sonora.
On the 2nd of January, following, Governor Saf-
ford sent an agent for them. They were found
without difficulty, but the Governor of Sonora,
Pesquiera, declined to give them up, and re-
ferred the matter to the Secretary of State.
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2(^ HISTOBT OF ARIZONA.
In December, 1871, a man mimed Baker who
lived at Blue Water station, and drove stage be-
tween that place and Tucson, was killed, together
with his fMnily. A reward of a thousand dol-
lars was offered for the murderers, but the ease
was abandoned when it was learned that the Mex-
icans had reached Sonora and were tmder the
protection of the Mexican Government.
Governor MeComaick, in speaking of the bor-
der troubles, remarked that when the Blue Water
and Mission Camp murders were committed, he
reported the same to the authorities in Washing-
ton, saying that should such things continue, it
was probable that a strong force would invade
Mexico and retaliate. The matter was brought
to the attention of the Mexican Government,
whose reply was that they were unable to guard
their frontier, and could not be responsible for
acts of their people across the border.
On January 14tb, 1871, the Arizona "Miner"
said: "The alarming frequency of deeds of vio-
lence in our community, and the tardiness with
which justice is meted out, will, we fear, judging
from the ominous mutterings of the people, cul-
minate in a vigilance committee, a self-consti-
tuted arbiter of justice so common to the frontier
wherever laws are not promptly and strictly en-
forced.*' The futile appeals to both the Mexican
and American Governments for protection, and
the prolonged delay in the adjustment of difficul-
ties, compeUed the citizens to avenge their own
grievances, or to submit unprotected to contin-
ued wrongs and outra^s.
The Gienega, or as it is now known, Pantano,
was a noted station in those days, and it is
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INDIAN TBOTTBLES. 2GS
claimed that murders were committed by the
stage employees, who posed as honest hosts.
At one time they murdered the United States
paymaster and Ms guard, securing seventy-five
thousand dollars. The Apaches, in turn, mur-
dered aU the bloodthirsty crowd at the Cienega.
These atrocities were committed in the early sev-
enties. The place, in later years, was destroyed.
In 1897, four men, who posed as prospectors
when they passed through Tucson, came from
San Francisco, and honeycombed the whole
place. It is supposed that tiiey had some knowl-
edge of the treasures hidden there, and that they
took away a large amount with them.
In March, 1872, a stationkeeper, William Mc-
Farland, at Sacaton, on the Tucson road, myste-
riously disappeared after leaving Gandara's
ranch. A large party of Americans went to
Gandara's to make investigations. One of the
party. Bedel, attempted to go into the house
when Gandara shot him, and then tried to escape,
but was riddled with bullets. On the following
day a party went in pursuit of Manuel Reyes,
who had threatened to kill four Americans in re-
venge for the death of a comrade. Reyes took
refuge in a house where there were several
women and children. All the mmates were or-
dered to leave the house ; as soon as they were out,
an onslaught was made, and amid the general
shooting Reyes was killed. An hour or two be-
fore Aguilar, another Mexican, was shot from
his horse. Fears were entertained of a general
uprising of the Mexicans, and places of business
in Sanford and Florence were dosed, the citi-
zens holding themselves in readiness to act, if
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201 HI8T0BY OF ABIZONA.
necessary. Governor Safford, however, soon
afterwards made his appearance, a body of
troopB was stationed in the vicinity, and peace
was finally restored.
King S. Woolsey, who had a ranch at Stanwix
station, (Agua Caliente), had a Mexican boy
whom he had brought up with the kindness of a
father. A Mexican desperado, formerly in his
employ, met the boy one day and, after some
words about his goin^ to kill Woolsey, he shot
the boy. The Mexican was captured. On the
following day, August 8th, 1872, the boy was bur-
ied, and the man was led out and shot beside the
boy's grave. At Kenyon Station, on the Yuma
road, Edward Lumley was killed on the IBth of
August, 16^, by Lucas Lugas and Manuel <Sub-
iate. He was beaten, stabbed and shot. On the
31st of the month Lugas was found in a thicket
of underbrush, where he was shot after a vain
attempt to kill his pursuers. Subiate was also
captured the same day and placed in the Yiuna
coimty jail. He denied having any connection
with the affair but this statement was rebutted
by strong circumstantial evidence. On the 8th
of August, four men were hanged for murders
committed the previous day.
This prompt and determined action of the peo-
ple was deemed necessary to save the lives and
property of the scattered population. A Mexi-
can named Mariano Tisnado was arrested for
cattle stealing in Phoenix, and strong suspicions
were entertained that he was accessory to the
murder of Mr. Griffin a short time before. It
was announced that his trial would take place
on the 3rd of July, 1873. Early that morning
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INDIAN TBOUBLEa 205
a number of farmers came in from eveiy di-
rection and assembled at the courthouse Bfjuare.
A little after six they took Mariano Tisnado
out and himg him on the gate of Monihou
& Starr's corral, where now stands the Mon-
Uion Building on the northeast comer of First
Avenue and Washington Street. They feared
that he woidd be acquitted if he was brought to
At midnight of August 3rd, 1873, a Mexican
couple, Vicente Hemandes and his wife, were
murdered in their home at Tucson with knives
and clubs, by Leonardo Cordoba, Clemente Lo-
pez, and Jesus Saguaripa. The murderers were
arrested on the following day, and a confeffiion
obtained from Cordoba acknowledging their par-
ticipation in the deed. He also disclosed the
place where the plimder was buried. After the
funeral the following day, a meeting was held.
The unanimous demand was that the murderers
should be executed at once. At the March ses-
sion of the court, two noted criminals had been
given their freedom, although it was well known
ibat they had taken the lives of innocent men.
At the time of the Hemandes murder there was
in the jail another murderer, John Willis by
name, who, it was determined, should be hanged
with the three Mexicans. Accordingly tiie meet-
ing adjourned until the following morning, Au-
gust 8th, when, at an early hour, the jail was sur-
rounded, and the prisoners demanded. Two
forked posts were planted in front of the jail
door, and a pole placed on them. Pour ropes
with nooses were then suspended from the pole.
A Catholic priest was siunmoned and allowed
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206 HWrOBY OP ABIZONA.
sufficient time for his ministratioiis. The pris-
oners were tiien led forth and hanged. The
hanging waa done cabnly and deliberately, the
feeluig being that it was for the best interests of
the community at large. The following is the
report of the inquest^ which shows the feeling of
the citizens at that time ;
"We, tile undersigned, the jurors summoned
to appear before Solomon Warner, the coroner
of the county of Pima, at Tucson, on the 8th day
of August, 1873, to inquire into the cause of the
death of John Willis, Leonardo Oordoba, Cle-
mente Lopez, and Jesus Saguaripa, find that they
came to tiieir death on tiie 8th day of August,
1873, about eleven thirty o'clock in the morning,
in the cotirthouse plaza, in the town of Tucson,
by hanging ; and we further find that said hang-
ing was committed by the people of Tucson en
masse ; and we do further say that in view of the
terrible and bloody murders which were com-
mitted by the three Mexicans above named, and
the tardiiiess with which justice was meted out to
John Willis, a murderer, the extreme measures
taken by our fellow citizens this morning, in vin-
dication of their lives, their property, and the
peace and good order of society, while it is to be
regretted and deplored that such extreme meas-
ures were necessary, seem to have been the
inevitable results of allowing criminals to escape
the penalties of their crimes."
G. B. Whisler, keeper of Burk's station on the
lower Gila was murdered at noon on July 7th,
1874, by a Mexican named Ventura Kimez.
Threats had been made by the border bandits to
murder all the station keepers from Gila Bend
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INDIAN TEOtTBLEa. 207
to Yuma, and the discovery of WWsler's violent
death caused wid^pread fear of criminfils. Gov-
ernor Safford inaugurated a plan which ap-
peared to have worked very well ; authorizing re-
sponsible parties to offer suitable rewards for
the apprehension of criminals. Accordingly,
Woolsey, of Stanwix Station, nine miles below
Burk's, immediately offered five himdred dol-
lars for Ventura Nunez, dead or alive. Three
Mexicans soon captured the murderer, who was
brought back on the 11th of December. There
was quite a large assembly of men present who
took the man &om the authorities and hanged
The valley of the San Pedro was first settled
by Mark Aldrich and others in 1865. In 1868
they took out a diteh. Apache depredations
commenced in 1867 and continued during 1868.
In 1869 a number of new settlers came in, but up
to February 7th, 1871, only one death came from
natural causes. The Indians committed their
usual atrocities. During the time of which we
write, 1868 to 1871, Cochise's band was busy in
the southern part of the territory. Settlers on
the Sonoita and the Santa Cruz, and as far south
as Nogales, were murdered and their stock driven
off. The only one who stood the test was Pete
Kitchen, whose adopted son was killed on his
home place, and whose laborers plowed his fields
with rifles at hand ready for use. Upon his
buildings he had lookouts to warn him of the ap-
proach of Apaches, At no time, probably, in the
history of Arizona, was there a darker outlook
than in 1871. Stoneman had done but very lit-
tle, except in the way of building roads. Two
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206 HISrOBT OF ABIZONA.
which he built in the northern part of the Terri-
tory, one from Hoi^ehead Crossing on the little
Colorado to Camp Apache, and the other from
Camp M&Dowell, via Burro Head to Sunset
Crossing, were of great assistance to General
Crook in hia subsequent military operations.
The most important fights during Stoneman's
command of this department were those of Cap-
tain Moore and of Captain KusselL Captain
Moore left Tucson on the 12th of March, 1871,
and reached McDowell about the first of April.
Continuing his expedition, a few days later
he attacked a rancheria, which is said to have
contained more than a hundred warriors, of
whom twenty-nine were killed during the engage-
ment, besides many wounded, who, according to
the custom of the Indians, were removed from
the battlefield. Returning to Tucson Captain
Moore went to the relief of Captain Russell
who, with a small force, had engaged Cochise
with about a hundred and fifty well armed, well
drilled warriors, about twelve miles from the
crossing of the San Pedro, near what was after-
wards known as Benson. Captain Russell had
about eighteen men in the engagement, one of
whom was killed and one wounded. While the
fight was confined to the plain, Cochise rapidly
fell back for a distance of five miles, with a loss
of fifteen warriors killed, and it was not imtil
after the Indians had reaciied the mountains and
entrenched themselves among the rocks that Cap-
tain Russell was compelled to retire and send for
re-enforcements. Among those killed was Azul,
the chief who planned the expedition which re-
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INDIAN TBOUBLEB. 209
suited in the killmg of two white men the year
The whole Apache country at this time had
been mapped ; many of the Indians were gathered
on the reservation on the Colorado river, and
some were employed around the different forts
General Crook took command in June, 1871,
but almost immediately was halted in his mili-
tary operations by instructions from Washing-
ton to await the result of the labors of the Peace
Commission, which was then on its way to New
Mexico and Arizona,
id By Google
^0 HEBTOBT OF ABIZONA.
THE PEACE COMMISSION.
GovEKNOB Saffobd's Pboclauation m Reoabd
TO — ^AbRIVAL op COMMISaiONEB ViNOENT
€oLTEB — ^Makes Ex Pabte Rbpobt — Re-
ceived With Oobdiality by Mhjtabt but
NOT BY Citizens to Whom He Refused
HEABiNas — Colteb's Lettebs Repobting
His Actions— Camp Apache — Industbt op
Apaches — Condition op Apache Indians —
Repebence to Camp Grant Masbaobe —
Tai-eb With Coyotebo Apache Chiefs.
Upon being notified that the Peace Commis-
sion was on its way to the Territory, Governor
SafEord, on the ISth day of August, A. D. lOTl,
issued the following proclamation:
"WHEREAS, I am informed, as I am depart-
ing for the Pinal Mountains with a large force
for the purpose of exploring the agricultural and
mineral resources of that region, that a commis-
sion has been ordered by the President of the
United States, to examine into the Indian affairs
of the Territory, with the view, if possible, of
securing a peaceful solution of the question, and
my absence may continue until after the arrival
of said commission, and
"WHEREAS, the object most desired by the
people of this Territory is the cessation of liidian
hostilities, and the means which will most speed-
ily accomplish this result will be hailed with joy
by every inhabitant.
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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 211
"NOW, THEREFORE, I, A. P. K. Safford,
Oovemor of Arizona, call upon the officers and
citizens of the Territory to receive said commis-
sioners with kindness and hospitality; to give
them all the aid and information upon such sub-
ject before referred to within your power and
knowledge. They have been selected with a view
to their integrity and humanity of purpose, and
sent here in the legal performance of duty. If
they come among you enteriiaining erroneous
opinions upon the Indian question and the condi-
tion of affairs in the Territory, then, by kindly
treatment, and fair, truthful representation, you
will be enabled to convince them of their errors.
"Given imder my hand and the great seal of
the Territory, this 15th day of August, A. D.
"By the Governor:
't:heo. f. white,
"Acting Secretary of the Territory."
Having spent some time in New Mexico inves-
tigating the Apaches in that Territory, Vincent
Colyer, who was the Commissioner, reached Ari-
zona, having been given ample powers to locate
reservations, make teeaties with tiie Indians, sut>-
ply them with all things necessary for their
actual wants, and gather them upon the reserva-
tions so established. Colyer did not take the set-
tlers into his confidence, nor did he, at any time,
try to get their side of the story. As he declared
h i m self, his business was entirely witii the In-
dians and with the military in the different de-
partments; naturally, as a consequence, his re-
port can only be considered as ex parte, and
212 HurroBY of abizona.
while, in every instance, he excuses the (arimes
of the Tnfli flps , citing outrages on the part of the
whites which provoked them to reprisals, at this
late day it must be conceded that lawless officials
and private citizens robbed, killed and plundered
the Indians, who regarded all whites as enemies
and waged a war to avenge cruel and imnecessary
wrongs perpetrated upon them, and that in many
instances tiie Indians were not altogether to
The report of Colyer, which is contained in his
letters printed in the following pages, recites the
beginnings of the wars between the Apaches and
the whites, and shows that, according to the re-
cords of the Indian Department, the Apache In-
dians were the friends of the Americans when
they first knew them, and asserts, with bow much
truth no one can say, that they always desired
peace with them, and that when they were placed
on reservations in 1858 and 1859, they were in-
dustrious, intelligent, and made rapid progress
in the arts of civilization.
The only Indians placed on reservations at the
times mentioned, were the Maricopas and Pimas,
which were, at that time, and always had been,
friendly to the whites, and, as before stated, were
the hereditary foes of the Apaches.
The report, continuing, says that their ill-will
and constant war with the Mexicans arose from
the fact that the Mexicans denied them any rights
to the soil as original occupants, and waged wars
of extermination against them; that the peace-
able relations of the Apaches with the Americans
continued until the latter adopted the Mexican
theory of extermination, and by acts of inhuman
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THE PEACE OOiliSJSmON. 213
treachery and cruelty made them our implacable
foes; that this policy has resulted in a war which,
in the last ten years, has cost us a tiiousand lives
and over forty millions of dollars, and the
country no quieter nor the Indians any nearer
extermination than they were at the time of the
Gadsden purchase ; that the present war will cost
the people of the United States between three and
four millions of dollars this year (1871); that
these Indians still beg for peace, and all of them
can be placed on reservations and fed at an ex-
pense of less than a half million of dollars a year,
without the loss of a life.
This is rather a broad assertion and it was not
borne out by subsequent events. However, these
representations were considered by the Presi-
dent, and Commissioner Colyer was directed to
proceed to New Mexico and Arizona, and there
take such measures as he deemed wisest to locate
these Apaches upon suitable reservations, feed,
clothe, and otherwise care for them, and tiie
President instructed the War Department to co-
operate with the Commissioner. In obedience to
these orders he went to these Territories, and in
consultation with the officers of the Army, Indian
Agents in New Mexico, and officers of the Army
under General Crook in Arizona, Mr. Colyer pro-
ceeded to put his plans into execution, and in his
report he says :
"The Indians came in gladly in large numbers,
and at last advices over fonr "thousand, being one-
half of all the roving Apaches, were living peace-
ably upon the reservations ; that no depredations
have been committed by any of these Indians
since they came in, and that before sprii^, if
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2a4 HISTOBY OP ARIZONA.
they are unmolested, and have stifficient food,
we shall have peace restored to these Terri-
tories; that Generals Schofield, Stoneman, and
other army officers reported that the Apaches who
came into the military posts last year paid for a
Wge part of the rations issued to them by sup-
plying hay and wood to the garrisons at much
less cost to the Government th^ that paid to the
contractors for the Army.'* The report says:
'"Hiat the act of Captain Nelson, the army offi-
cer in command at Camp Grant, in tuming back
the party of two hundred armed citizens, who im-
periously demanded to cross the Indian reserva-
tion at tiiai post, was necessary; saved the three
hundred Indians collected there from another
bloody massacre, and the nation from a disgrace,
and,1banks Captain Nelson for it"
This, of course, was mere assumption. The
citizens of Tucson, in common with all citizens of
Arizona, were anxious to interview Colyer; find
out just what his disposition was towards them,
and what his plans were for ending the Indian
war. It is nonsense to suppose for a moment
that two himdred citizens would attack a fort
like that of Grant while the military were in pos-
session, well armed and equipped with gatling
guns, just for the pleasure of murdering a few
Indians there. General Crook condemned Nel-
son for issuing this order, saying that the road
passing from Florence to within four miles of the
post was a public highway and that to deny any
armed American the right to enter the reserva-
tion, was to deny anyone the ri^t to travel over
this road, since it was necessary for self-protec-
TEE PEACE COMMISSION. 215
tion that all pairties should carry arms in travel-
General Crook had issued an order to enlist
twenty-five Apache Indians as scouts, to fight the
Apaches, but upon learning that Colyer was
coming into the Territory on a peace mission, re-
scinded the order. In reference to this Mr. Col-
yer says: "The order countermanding the previ-
ous order of General Crook, of employing
Apaches to fight Apaches, was made by the Gen-
eral himself, greatly to his honor." It should be
remembered that General Crook, when hostilities
were resumed by orders from Washington, en-
listed Apaches to fight Apadies, and in this way
conquered the hostSe tribes.
Mr. Colyer says he was *' received with cordial-
ity by General Granger (commander in New
Mexico), General Crook, and all the officers of
the army in New Mexico and Arizona, and that
there was at no time any discord of action. "
Upon his return to Washington the reserva-
tions which he had selected, and the arrange-
ments which he had made for the protection and
subsistence of the Indians upon them, under the
care of the officers of the army under General
Crook, were approved by the President and the
Secretary of the Interior, and directions given by
General Sherman for their permanency.
Of the complaints made by officials and editors
of newspapers in Arizona, of a want of courtesy
toward the white settlers, as well as the vitupera-
tion and abuse of the press of Arizona and Cali-
fornia, the commissioner takes but slight notice.
He said that the business for which he was sent
was accomplished, and that he trusted for his
id By Google
216 HKTOBY OP ARIZONA.
vindication to time and the results with which
he believed God woxild prosper the work. Suffice
it to say that it was found necessary in a very
short time to set aside his report, and to instruct
General Crook to resume hostilities.
The report opens with extracts from the report
of Agent Steck, Indian Agent for New Mexico,
for 1857-58 and '59, showing the condition of the
Apaches in New Mexico at that time in a very
favorable light, and then, continuing, recites the
slaughter of the Apaches of Mangus Colorado's
band by Johnson in 1841, which has been before
redted; the capture of Cochise and some of his
Indians by Lieutenant Bascomb ; the escape of
Cochise ; tlie murder of his warriors which drove
Cochise and his band into war against the whites,
ending with the Pinole Treaty of King Woolsey,
which has been fully recited in these pages, to-
gether with the killing of Mangus Colorado while
a prisoner, and other outrages committed by the
whites upon the Indians.
Mr. Colyer further says: "With these official
records before us, showing the injustice and folly
of their treatment by the Mexicans in denying
them any rights to the soil on which they lived as
the original occupants ; their goodwill toward the
Americans, who, on their first acquaintance,
treated them justly ; their industrious habits and
peaceable character when placed on reservations
and allowed a fair opportunity to gain a liveli-
hood ; the inhuman treachery and cruelty on the
part of white men, which have made them our im-
placable foes, and the heavy cost, botli in life and
treasure, which these events have entailed upon
us, we have felt it our duty, for the last inree
id By Google
THE PEACE COMMISEaON. 217
years, to endeavor to better the eondition of the
Apache Indians of Arizona. Of the present
character of these Indians there is not much dif-
ference of opinion between 'Christians' and 'Ex-
terminators,' but in their treatment as one
believes in their salvation, the other in their de-
struction — ^there is disagreement.
"Congress, at the earnest solicitation of the
board, having passed the appropriation of
$70,000, referred to in our report of last year, *to
collect the Apache Indians of Arizona and New
Mexico on reservations, furnish them with sub-
sistence and other necessary articles, and to pro-
mote peace and civilization among them,' the
board at its meeting in May directed 'its secre-
tary to visit the Apache country, to take such
measures as might seem expedient to prevent the
perpetration of further outrages like the Camp
Grant massacre, and, if possible, avert the appre-
"On the 13th day of July, in company with
Commissioner George H. Stuart, I called upon
the President at Long Branch, New Jersey, and,
reporting to him the condition of affairs in New
Mexico and Arizona, we received letters from
bim to the Secretary of the Interior and Secre-
tary of War, directing that enlarged powers be
given to such agent as the Secretary of the Inte-
rior might select to effect 'so desirable an object'
as above indicated.
"The acting Secretary of the Interior having
selected me as the agent, authorized and re-
quested me to proceed to New Mexico and Ari-
zona Territories, and there take such action as
in my judgment seemed wisest and most proper
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218 HlffrOBT OF ABIZONA.
for locating the nomadic tribes of these Terri-
torira upon suitable reservations, bringing them
imder the control of the proper oflSeers of the
Indian Department, and supplying them with
necessary subsifitenee, clothing, and whatever else
might be needed. The Department invested me
with full powers to be exercised according to my
discretion in carrying into effect its views in re-
lation to the Indians referred to. "
The gist of his report is contained in letters
from Mr. Colyer, which follow : The first two let-
ters relate entirely to the Indians of New Mexico,
and are not of particular importance to Arizona.
The other letters I give in their entirety :
"Camp Apache, Arizona Territory,
"September 6, 1871.
"Since my last letter, dated August 22, 1871, 1
have the honor to report that, in company with
Nathaniel Pope, superintendent of Lidian af-
fairs in New Mexico, John Ward as interpreter,
and Philip Gonzales, as guide, with an escort of
twenty soldiers under a sergeant of the Fif-
teenth IT. S. Infantry, Company K, we left Camp
Craig, New Mexico, on tiie 23rd of August, lOTl,
with, fifteen days' rations, for the Apawie Didian
country, in New Mexico and Arizona, to inspect
the upper valley of dafiada, Alamosa, beyond iiie
mountains, at Hot Springs, Ojo Caliente, and the
Tularosa Valley, to ascertain their suitablenesa
for an Indian reservation. After a very inter-
esting ride of three days, travelling about twenty-
eight miles a day and camping at night, we ar-
rived at noon of the 25th at Ojo Caliente. We
here met, by appointment, O. F. Piper, Esq.,
agent for the Southern Apaches, who, in com-
THE PEACE COMMISSION. 219
pany with Seuor Trojero, alcalde of the Mexican
village of €anada, his nephew, and Sergeant
Stackpole, Fifteenth United States Infantry,
had ridden on horseback over the mountains
■which run between the Canada proper and the
Springs. They also brought with them Loco,
one of the Apache chiefs, who had been in com-
pany with the Senor Trojero over to Arizona in
search of Cochise, under the direction of Super-
intendent Pope, who had fdready forwarded to
the Department an account of their expedition,
and of its failure, owing to Trojero 's having
fallen in with General Crook, commanding the
department of Arizona, and being as he says, or-
dered back and forbidden to pursue his errand
"We examined the neighborhood of Ojo CaU-
ente (Hot Springs) carefully, and finding the
area of land capable of being cultivated far too
small for the necessities of a tribe as lai^e as this
band of Southern Apaches, we were very reluc-
tantiy compelled to seek further. Its proximity to
Canada Alamosa, though separated by high hills
or mountains, and, like that vaUey, it being a
favorite place of resort of Gie Indians, made us
hope to find it suitable for a reservation.
"Trojero, the scout, said that the Mexicans em-
ployed by General Crook, whom he met at his
camp, were among the worst villains in Mexico,
and the Indians were part of Miguel's bfind of
peaceable Apaches from the White Mountain
reservation, who said they had to enlist in the
service or be considered enemies.
"These stories, circulated by Trojero among
them; his having been sent back by General
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2Q0 HiaroBT of Arizona.
Crook, together with the excitement produced by
ihe threats of massacre from the settlers at Eio
Mimbrea, so alarmed the Indians that it was next
to impossible to secure an interview with them,
although Agent Piper had promised any and all
of them presents, who would come out to meet
the 'commissioner from Washington,' whom
they were eager to see, but only two. Loco and
Francisco, the Navaho interpreter, could be per-
suaded to trust themselves, and Loco trembled
like a frightened child when they saw us coming.
Time, however, with patience and care, will yet
succeed. We left Ojo Caliente on Saturday,
26th August, resting over Simday, and, after a
very interesting trip, we arrived at the Tularosa
Valley on the 29th of August, and the White
Mountain reservation, this place, on the 2d of
"VALLEY OP THE TULAROSA
"I carefuUy inspected the valley and neighbor-
hood of the Tularosa river, and fiiading the same
to possess most of the requisites necessary for a
home for the Indians, it being remote from white
settlements, surrounded by moimtains not easily
crossed, sufficient arable land, good water, and
plenty of wood and game, I officially notified
Colonel Pope that I would designate it as an In-
dian reservation, agreeably to iiie authority
given to me by you in your letter of the 2l8t
July ; and I telegraphed to the Secretary of i^e
Interior, via Santa Fe, to that effect, on the
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THE F&A.CE COMMISSION. 221
"CAMP APACHE, ARIZONA.
"I was received very kindly by Colonel Green,
commandine, and the officers of the post, at
Camp Apacne, and found that at tiie time of my
arrival dispatches had been received from Gen-
eral Crook at Camp Verde, countermanding his
order to enlist Apache Indians to fight Apaches^
which was construed by those present to mean
a virtual suspension of hostilities. This order
of General Crook, abandoning the practice of
taking peaceable Indians from the cornfields
and compelling them to go on the warpath
against their brethren, speaks much for his
humanity and good sense, and was a great relief
to my mind. The General being on his way to
Prescott, where his headquarters are estab-
lishedf and his campaign for the present being
at an end, all fears of my orders crossing his
movements are now removed. There are sev-
eral tribes and bands of Indians, who have lived
here for many generations, and who could not
be removed to either Camp Grant or the Tula-
rosa Valley without great suffering to them-
selves, possibly a war of great expense to the
Government, and as this reservation had been
set apart for this special purpose by the War
Department, under the advice of the late Gen-
eral Thomas, I concluded, with the matured ad-
vice of Colonel John Green, to select it as a
reservation, and asked that the protection, pro-
visioning, &c.y ordered by the Government, be
extended to the Indians at this place also. I
enclose you a copy of my letter to Colonel Green
upon the subject. Before leaving Santa Fe I
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222 HiarroBT of abizona.
believe that I reported that I had set apart
$2,000 to be expended and forwarded, under the
superintendence of W, T. M. Amy, Agent of the
Pueblos, for clothing, a few agricultural imple-
ments, subsistence, &c., in good order and well
selected. We have waited four days for the
Indians to come in, and to-day, about three hun-
dred and forty reported.
"INDUSTRY OF THE APACHES.
"I inclose several reports of Lieutenant
Colonel Green, giving an account of his ex-
perience with and the character of these
Apaches. By referring to one of these letters
you will see Colonel Green, First Cavalry, says :
'The Apache Indians furnished one himdred and
ninety tons of hay,' for which he paid them in
flour. They brought it into his camp, in the
White Mountains, fifteen tons a day. They sup-
plied the garrison with all tiie wood they used,
bringing it in at the rate of thirty cords a day,
using £eir hands and a few broken axes to
break it off, and the hay they cut with aid knives,
and the whole was brought into the post on their
backs, and it was really interesting to see the
spirit in which they went to work, and what
nice, clean hay they brought in, much superior
to any I have seen furni^ed by contractors in
Arizona. Yesterday upwards of four thousand
pounds were brought. Even the children went
to work with alacrity. One little child that
could scarcely walk brought in nine pounds, for
which he received three-quarters of a pound of
flour, and was hig^y delighted with his success.
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THE PE^CE COMMISSION. £iO
I propose to supply the new post with hay in the
same way, which will be much cheaper than if
done by contract.
"I was sorry that the supply of grain at this
post did not admit of my complying fully with
the general's wishes in giving them com for
seed. I could illy spare a very small amoimt,
so that their planting will not be as extensive
this year as I had hoped. I am in hopes that by
next year I will be able to furnish them with
suf&cient seed, and would also respectfully
recommend that the department commander
urge the necessity of furnishing the ruder imple-
ments of agriculture, as at present their only
means of farming are sharpened sticks, and it is
wonderful to see with what advantage they use
them. They frequently ask for other seed than
com, particularly piunpkins, beans, squashes,
and melons. It would probably be well for the
Indian Bureau to send an agent to look after the
interests of these people. I ask them, *Why are
you so poor?' and the answer invariably is,
'How can we be otherwise f We had not much
originally, and now we can get nothing ; we do
not steal; we cannot go to the mescal coimtry, as
we are liable to be met and killed by scouting
parties.' I know myself this to be the case,
hence they have either to starve or steal ; or we
must feed them until they can raise enough for
themselves. Mrs. Green informed me that when
the sick garrison was removed from Camp
Gk)odwin, on account of its imhealthiness, to this
place, she was carried all the way, ninety miles,
over the mountains, on a litter, by the Apaches,
on their shoulders ; she having been an invalid
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224 HISIOBT OF ABIZONi..
at that time. Mrs. Green was much attached to
them in consequence. I expect to leave for
Camp Grant in a day or two. V. C. ' '
"CAMP GRANT, ARIZONA TERRITORY.
"September 18, 1871.
"Immediately after the massacre of the peace-
able Indians at Camp Grant by the citizens of
Tucson, the news was received by the peaceable
Apaches on the White Mountain reservation,
and nearly all of them, some sis hundred in
number, under the leadership of Es-cet-e-cela,
their chief, fled frightened to the mountains.
The evening before their departure a herder, a
soldier detailed for that duty was killed. The
only band which remained was Miguel's, num-
bering about two hundred and seventy-five In-
dians, under that chief. Colonel Green de-
manded of Miguel the arrest of the murderer ;
Miguel replied that he did not belong to that
band. The Colonel persisted, and Miguel sent
out and had one of Es-cet-e-eela*s Indians killed,
and parts of the body brought in as testimony
that tiie order was executed. On the arrival of
General Crook some twenty-five Indians belong-
ing to Miguel's band were enlisted as scouts,
much against their will as we afterwards
learned, to operate against the otiier Apaches.
' ' These twenty-five Indians, acting under
Colonel Guy V. Henry's orders, had attacked a
raneheria within hearing of the garrison at
Camp Apache, and killed five Indians of Es-cet-
e-cela 's band. As I before reported to you, on
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THE FEACK COMMISSION. 225
the eTening of my arrival at the reservation,
four couriers arrived from General Crook at
Camp Verde, one homdred and sixty miles dis-
tMit, from which place they had ridden in three
day^ with orders to discontinue the enlistment
of Indians, the orders having previously been to
enlist as many as one hundred.
"Hearing that Es-cet-e-cela was in the moim-
tains near the post, I dispatched his son-in-law,
a Mr. Stevens, mailrider at the post, with a mes-
sage for >iim to come in, a promise of protecti(»i,
and a suit of clothes. Miguel had been sent for
by Colonel Green, some days before. The two
chiefs arrived the same afternoon, September
6th, and visited me apart.
"I told Es-cet-e-cela the war was over, and all
offenses must be forgiven. He said the soldier-
herder was not killed by one of his band, but by
an Indian from Rio Bonita, sent over by the In-
dian survivors from Camp Grant massacre to
stir tiiem up to war. He complained of
Miguel's killing an innocent Indian for it, and
afterwards killing five more of his band without
cause. We had hard work to reconcile him, but,
with the aid of Colonel Green and Mr. Cooley,
the interpreter, we succeeded. The chiefs met,
stood some forty feet apart, eyeing each other,
with arms folded haughtily. The interpreter
stepped up, and, leading Miguel forward, put
his hand into the hand of E^-cet-e-cela , wheai
they first ^ook hands and then embraced.
"The next day we opened the boxes of cloth-
ing, coats, pantaloons, manta (sheeting), calico,
thread, needles, awls, handkerchiefs, and
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226 EISrOBT OF abizon^
blankets, and placing them in charge of Mrs.
Colonel Green, who has been a warm friend of
the Indians ; arranged the Apaches in bands and
families, and, taking a careful list of the names
of the heads of all the families, with the number
of their wives and children, Mrs. Green, dis-
tributed to every one, three hundred and sixty-
two persons all told, a suit of good clothing.
Without being solicited to do so, the chiefs all
dressed in coats and pantaloons, and many more
young men requested pantaloons and coats than
we could supply. When all had received their
presents, and were departing for their villages,
a happier, more grateful and decently behaved
set of poor people I have never seen.
*'TALK WITH COTOTERO APACHE
CHIEFS, CAMP APACHE, ARIZONA
"A few hours before the issue of clothing, the
following interview with the Apache chiefs was
held at Camp Apache, (Fort Tliomas), Arizona
Territory, September 7, 1871. In the presence
of Colonel John Green and the officers of the
post. Commissioner Colyer opened the coxmcil
with prayer, and, addressing the chiefs, said his
words would be few; Colonel Green would in-
form them what his orders were from the Presi-
dent. The colonel told them that he was in-
structed to feed all the Apaches who came in
and remained peaceable upon the reservation,
the boundaries of which were explained to them.
Commissioner Colyer then said that the great
council (Congress) at its last session appro-
priated money to feed and clothe them as long
THE PEACE COMMISeiON. 227
as they remained at peace and upon the reserva-
tion ; if they went off the reservations they were
liable to be killed.
*'E8-cet-e-cela shakes hands: *He asked God's
blessing upon this meeting. It is getting late
and he has but little to say. He h^ heard all
that is said, and before God, he believes that it
is good. Tonight he wiU sleep well. He won't
have to tread sleepless over the moimtains, but
has a plain road. Now they have grass, can
hunt tike turkey, and have what they need.
Some of his people are absent, but he will get
word to them as soon as possible; for the pur-
pose of getting them in he wants a pass. '
"Commissioner Colyer said: 'The colonel will
give it to him.'
"Miguel. — ^"He has but little to say. He sees
now that we have fixed things so that he won't
have any stones to stumble against. He, like
the conunissioner, has but little to say, but what
little he does say he means to live up to. His
reputation is well known as a man of peace. He
likes his home and quiet way of living. He has
always been a farmer on the Oarrizo, and that
valley has been father and mother to him. He
sees that when the soldiers do wrong tiiey have
balls and chains to their feet, therefore he is
afraid to do wrong, nor has he any desire to. In
his youth he was wild, but since he was up to
<Banta Fe and talked with his governor, he has
kept on the Carrizo and worked on his farm.
He asked for Stevens and Cooley as his agents.
He knows Cooley, and wants him to keep his
young men from going out. Some of his people
are sick, and be has com to gather, so he wants
228 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA.
to go home in the morning. He will come in to
see the colonel whenever he can. Sometime
since he was told his father from Washington
would come, and now he has come. His beef
and his com will be weighed out to him ; when
can he reach up to it I He would like his beef
issued on the hoof, so that he can get the hide
and tallow. (The colonel so promised.) He
sees that peace has been actually restored.
When his young men return from G«ieral
Crook, he wUl see that they do not go soldiering
any more. It is well one of his soldiers came
"The morning after the distribution of cloth-
ing, Miguel, Es-cet-e-eela, and Pedro, with sev-
eral headmen, called at our quarters to bid us
goodbye. Miguel said he should pray to the
Great Spirit to take care of the commissioner,
and, hereafter, if any soldier kicked him
(Miguel), he should send him word to tell the
"DEPARTURE FOR CAMP GRANT.
"We left Camp Apache at noon, September 8,
1871, for Camp Grant, Arizona, with an escort
6f ten mounted infantry, imder Lieutenant
Peter S. Bumos; a packtrain to carry our pro-
vender, with some clothing for the Indians at
Camp Grant, and such Indians as we might
meet on the way. We had two Indian yoimg
men, one from Miguel's and one from Es-cet-e-
cela's band, to accompany us, to act as runners
to communicate with any Apaches they might
meet, and inform them of the peaceful intention
of the President, and of the establishment of
THE PEACE OOMlUeSION. 229
reservations, with protection and food for all
who wished to be at peace.
"Our route lay across the mountainfi to Black
River, over to the headwaters of the San Car^
los, down the San Carlos to the Gila River,
across the Gila to Mount Trumbull, over that
mountain to and down the Aravaipa Ysjley to
Camp Grant. Our mardi throng this por-
tion of the heart of the Apache countiy was
very encouraging. Our Indian gmdes, im-
provising white flags and signalling their
friends of our approach by lighting fires and
making smokes, brought Uiem out by scores.
They met us on the trail, bearing white flags
made of white buckskin, and came from, the
most inaccessible places and from where you
would least expect them. At night our camp
was surroimded by them, and the soldiers soon
got so used to their presoice that we all slept
soundly though they frequently outnumbered us
five to one. During the whole march, though we
were thus surroimded, not an animal was dis-
turbed nor an article stolen. We opened our
packs and distributed clothing to aU, old and
"I have visited seven-eighths of all the In-
dians now under our flag, including Alaska, and
I have not seen a more intelligent, cheerful, and
grateful tribe of Indians than the roving
Apaches of Arizona and New Mexico. ' '
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230 HiErroBT of abizona..
THE PEACE COMMISSION (ContinQed).
Abrival at Camp Grant — Refusal to Allow
Abmbd CrnzBKS to Cross Reservation —
Apache Children Taken into Captivity
— Ii?TEKViEW With Apache Chiefb at
Camp Grant— Talk With Es-Cim-En-
^EN^ Head Chief op Aravaipa Finals —
Opposition to the Indian Peace Pouoy.
"We arrived at Camp Grant on the 13th inst.,
and found a white flag flying over the post, the
effect of the telegram forwarded to its com-
mander through the kindness of the Secretary
of Interior and the Secretary of War on the 3rd
of August last. We were hospitably received
by Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman and Captain
Wm. Nelson, commandine the post Soon after
our arrival we learned that a company of one
himdred and seventy-five or two hundred white
citizens from Tucson (the town where the body
of citizens came from who committed the mas-
sacre some few months since) were on their way
t<^ and within twelve miles of, the reservation,
and were expected in on the morrow. Two Mexi-
can couriers, who had arrived some days pre-
vious, reported that the expedition was gotten up
with a view to breaking up the reservation. Cap-
tain Thoe. -S. Dunn, Twenty-first United States
Infantry, and Agent Wilbur, of the Papagoes,
who came up with the party, informed us that it
was a party of 'prospectors,* who were coming
through the reservation on their way to the
THE PE^GE COMMISSION. 231
mouutains. At the same time yte were informed
that Governor Safford, with a party of three
hundred citizens, who had recently passed
through the reservation, was expected in on
his return homeward on the morrow. As the
reservation is within a valley and surrounded
with mountains, without a road or trail through
it leading anywhere, and as the Indians had only
just come in after much persuasion, and were
xmder evident fears of another attack, the im-
propriety of allowing these armed bands of citi-
zens to rendezvous upon the reservation was ap-
parent. As either the Indians or these citizens
had to leave the reservation, I promptly in-
formed Captain Nelson that if he permitted
these citizens to come nearer than ten miles of
the post, I would have to send out Indian run-
ners to the Apaches, and, gathering them to-
gether, ask him for a sufficient escort to conduct
them with me over to the White Moimtain reser-
vation. Captain Nelson replied that he should
regret to have me do that, and instead he would
forbid tlie party of citizens from approaching
nearer than within ten miles of the post; and he
issued an order to Uiat efEect. He forwarded
this order by a corporal and four men that eve-
ning, who met the party twelve miles away. At
four o'clock the corporal sent in word tliat he
had met the leaders, and that they had declared
tiiat 'they would cross the reservation.' Cap-
tain Nelson then directed Lieutenant Whitman
to ride out and meet the party and inform them
that he was prepared to enforce his order, and
had his guns in position, and would open fire
upon them on their appearance at the mouth of
232 HISrOBT OF abizona.
the Canyon opposite the post; Captain Nelson
loading up the waterwagon belonging to the post
and sending it out to them, that they might not
sufEer in case they should conclude to go back,
which the report of Captain Nelson says they
very reluctantly consented to do. They left
wilji the declaration that they could use the
white flag as well as we, and if that would bring
in the Indians they would bring them in and put
them on a reservation where it would not cost
much to feed them. They went off aroimd the
reservation toward the east, Captain Thos. S.
Dunn accompanying them. It was reported
that a band of Papago Indians were with them,
but Dr. R. A. Wilbur, the agent of the Papagoes,
who came into the post with the party, said that
he had no knowledge of any of his Indians being
present. As the Papagoes, for many years,
have had a feud with the Apaches, and as they
were the people whom the citizens of Tucson
brought with them on their former visit and who
had assisted so vigorously in the massacre, I was
very much surprised, and expressed my great re-
gret to Dr. Wilbur at seeing him accompany an-
other expedition from the same place of a char-
acter 80 similar to the former, and composed of
a portion of the same people, in a foray against
another Indian tribe. He informed me thai he
had no authority from Dr. Bendel, the superin-
tendent of Indian Affairs of Arizona, or from
the Indian Ofl&ce, to leave his agency. I called
his attention to the fact that his presence with
such a party was calculated to awaken distrust
among the Apaches as to the honesty of our in-
tentions in inviting tiiem in, and I su^ested to
THE FB&CE OOMUISSION. 233
him the propriety of returning to his agency as
soon as possible. The Doctor said that he had
never received any copy of the laws of the In-
dian Bureau, and being uninformed of his
duties, was not aware of tiiere being any impro-
priety in his being here under such circum-
stances. He returned to his agency two days
after the above interview. Before he left I re-
quested him to use every meana in his power to
recover from the Papagoes the twenty-eight
children stolen from the Apadies during the
massacre. He promised to do so.
"Permit me to call your attention to the fact
that these children have not yet been returned
to their families, though it ia now more than
four months since they were stolen. As they
were captured while iheir parents were being
killed, though held as 'prisoners of war' by the
Army, the War Department, without other aid,
has the power, it seems to me, to recover them if
they are still in our country. It is reported that
the majority of them have been carried over into
Souora by the Papagoes and sold to the Mexi-
cans. In that event, I would respectfully sug-
gest that application be made to the Government
of Mexico, through the Department of State, for
their return. Events at this post (Camp
Grant) are, in one respect, singularly similar to
those at Camp Apache. Here, as there, imme-
diately after the massacre at Camp Grant, the
killing of one white man was their official an-
nouncement tiiat the Apaches were going out on
the warpath. The first Indian chief who came
to this post last spring and asked to be allowed
to live at peace, was Es-cim-en-zeen. He was
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234 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA.
the leader of bis people and, up to the time of
the massacre, was as peaceable and contented as
man could be. He had two wives, five children,
and about fifty of his people killed in the mas-
sacre, and this seems to have partially crazed
him. He came in after the attack, and, assist-
ing at the burial of his family, seemed recon-
ciled, but, by a very imfortimate blimder, some
troops from the White Moimtains, who came
down the Aravaipa Valley nearly a month after
the massacre, getting frightened at imexpectedly
coming upon some of the Indians who had
peaceably returned, opened fire upon them. It
was Es-cim-en-zeen and his family. At this he
became enraged, and bidding Lieutenant Whit-
man a formal goodbye, fled with his people to
the moimtains, and, it was said, killed a white
man on his way. As I considered the massacre
of Es-cim-en-zeen 's family and people at Camp
Grant an inauguration of a condition of war
between the whites and the Apaches, and Es-
cim-en-zeen 's act in killing the white man, assum-
ing that he did it, an incident in that war, and
as my instructions were to feed, clothe, and
otherwise care for all roving Apache Indians
who wished to come in and be at peace, without
r^ard to previous offenses, I had no hesitation
when Lieutenant Whitman sent for bim, to give
him, together with Captain Chiquito and the
other chiefs and their people, assurances of
peace and protection.
"The chiefs first sent in their runners to see
all was right, who, meeting with the Indian run-
ners from the White Mountains, and hearing of
the liberality and kindness of the Government,
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THE PEACE COMMffiSION. 235
as displayed on our journey thither in the dis-
tribution of clothing, etc., returned to their
chiefs and people, told their story, and brought
"Up to this date two hundred and forty-five
Apaches have arrived, all but ten (White Moun-
tain Indians) being the same that were here be-
fore the massacre. As at Camp Apache, I dis-
tributed a suit of clothing, manta (sheeting),
calico, needles and thread to each Indian, man,
woman, and child.
"Lieutenant WMtman informed the chiefs
that his orders from the Secretary of War were
to feed them as long as they remained at peace
on the reservation. Commissioner Colyer told
them Congress had appropriated tbe money^
and the President had sent him here with the
clothing, and instructions to the Lieutenant to
feed them. If they left the reservation, the
limits of which he explained to them, they were
liable to be killed.
"Esce-nela, chief and Cassay, counsellor,
claims to have always kept the i)eace. Ten years
ago he was at Goodwin, and then they had a
chief named Na-nine-chay, who governed all
their tribes. He has met many officers, but that
I was the first one to express regret at the Camp
Grant massacre. (William Kness, interpreter,
here remarked that Lieutenant Whitman had
expressed regret, but this chief was not pres-
ent.) He had no doubt but that God put it into
the heart of the President to send me out here.
He is satisfied that God is listening to this talk.
He intends now to talk with reference to eter-
nity, as though the world was to last forever.
id By Google
2S6 EI9r<»tT OF ABIZONA.
He belieTes that I will tell him the truth. He
haa no doubt but that I am sorry for the killed
at the massacre. He is sorry for the Indians
who have been taken away prisoners. He be-
lieves now that the centipedes and tarantulas
(bad reptiles) among their enemies will hurt no
more. He believes that now we will protect
them ; that we are now as father and mother to
them. He heard of our coming; now he is glad
to meet vs. He said his people were living here
peaceably, receiving rations three times a week,
up to the time of the massacre. He believes
neither the lieutenant nor any of the officers
knew of the coming to attack them. It was
about four o'clock in the morning when they
were attacked; 126 killed, 29 taken prisoners.
He and all the captains lost some of their
families. He lost two wives, four children,
three men (one old man), and two of his neph-
ews were taken away. He lost fifty of his band.
When the Tucson people attacked him, his best
wife got separated from him and he could not
find her. It was dark. If he could have found
her he would have fought and died with her.
There had been over five hundred of his people
on the reservation at the time of the massacre.
About thirty days after the attack about four
hundred had returned, and were on the reserva-
tion, when a lieutenant and a party of troops
imder his command, fired into some of lus
* ' Conmiiasioner Colyer asked : ' Does this
country still please them, after what has oc-
curred t Or, if Lieutenant Whitman and the
interpreters and soldiers were to take them far-
THE PEACE COMMISSION. 237
ther up into the Pinal country, would they pre-
"Answer: 'The coimtry still pleases them;
they wish to remain here ; this has always been
their home, the hcane of their fathers, and they
want Lieutenant Whitman as their agent, and
these two men as their interpreters, "fiiey wish
to go out and hunt, and if this campaign is
stopped, they will show that they can behave
themselves. They have now had tiieir talk, and
they would like to have their share of the goods
distributed to them now. When the other diief s
come in, they can have theirs.'
"Iji the afternoon tiiey came again. Esce-
nela said he had been thinking over what I had
told him, and now he had come to speak of it.
Said be wanted to plant wheat on the San Pedro,
and com on the Aravaipa.
' 'Commissioner Colyer remarked that the
chief had changed his mind since yesterday.
He said nothing to that, but that he wished the
man who was there should ronain there. Mr.
Austin owns the farm. Mr. Pilmore occupies it
*'Es-cim-en-zeen said: 'He was glad to come
in to his old home. He was the fii^ to come in
and make peace before and was happy in his
home here. He got his rations every three days.
He was living not far from here. He was making
tiswin (a drmk) in peace, when one morning he
and his people were attacked, and many of them
were killed. The next day after the massacre
he came into this camp because he knew it was
not the people here who had done it ; it was the
people from Tucson and Papagoes. He then
continued to live here in the vidley for nearly
238 HISrOBT OF abizona.
thirty days, when his people were again at-
tacked; this time by a squad of military men,
and, although none of his people were killed, yet
that made him mad, and he went on the warpath.
He now admits he did wror^, but he was grieved,
and he could not help it. The one who fii^t
breaks the peace is the one who is to blame. He
believes Commissioner Colyer has come to make
peace, and is glad he has put tobacco before
him to smoke. They have always known that
they had a great father and a great mother.
The commissioner had sent out for him, and
probably thought he would see a great captain,
but he only saw a very poor man, and not very
much of a captain. If he had seen him about
three months ago, he would have seen him a cap-
tain. Then he had a band of seventy men, but
they had all been massacred ; now he has got no
people. Ever since he left this place he has
been in the neighborhood; he loiew he had
friends here, but he was afraid to come back ;
but as soon as he heard the commissioner was
here then he came in. He never had much to
say; he likes this place. He has said all he
ought to say, since he has no people anywhere to
speak for. If it had not been for the massacre,
there would have been a great many more people
here now; but, after that massacre, who could
have stood it ? It was not possible for any man
to have stood it. When he made peace with
Lieutenant Whitman his heart was very big and
happy. The people of Tucson and San Xavier
must be crazy. They acted as though they had
neither heads nor hearts.'
id By Google
THE PEACE COMMISSION, 239
"Sunday Morning, September 17, 1871, — The
chiefs calling to see Commissioner Colyer, he
told them 'he was glad to see them. They must
not expect everything to go right at first. It
takes a long time to heal a wound, lliey have
a good friend in the President, and he will do
his best to deal justly and kindly with them. '
**Es-cim-en-zeen replied that *he thanked God.
They are happy now, but perhaps as soon as the
commissioner has gone the soldiers will begin to
kick them and point their rifles at them. That
they didn't hke. They are contented now, but
their young men are active, and being prevented
from hunting they collect aroimd the post, and
get mixed up with the soldiers. Sometimes the
soldiers kick them and throw stones at them;
this makes trouble, as the young men feel bad. '
"■Commissioner Colyer told them they would
try to separate the post from the Indian agency.
This they said was good, and it pleased them.
They were glad that nothing had happened while
he was here to break this good peace. They
tiiink the people of Tucson and San Xavier (the
Papagoes) must have a thirst for their blood.
They seem to be always pursuing them. They
think that as soon as the commissioner has gone
these people will return again and try to massa-
cre them. They want, as soon as he hears any-
thing of the kind, that he will return and judge
for himself. They believe that these Tucson and
San Xavier people write for the papers and tell
their own story. The Apaches have no one to
tell their story, so they want the commissioner
to come again. They think it must have been
God who gave him a good heart to come and see
240 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA.
them, or he must have had a good father and
mother to make him so kind. The conuniasioner
told them ' It was God ' ; they said, ' It was. ' They
said, 'they believed the Papagoes coiQd not have
any God, they had always been so cruel, and had
tried to persecute the Apaches as long as they
could remember.' It is just three days since
they, the Apaches, have been here, and they have
been happy. It seems to them that the arroyos,
(ravines), have been all smoothed over; that
there are no more thorns or briers to prick them,
nor snakes and reptiles to poison. He said that
Lieutenant Whitman knew their story; knew
how happy they were here in peace, up to the
time of the massacre ; knew all about that massa-
cre; knew how he had returned after it; knew
how he had been fired upon by the Wliite Moun-
tain soldiers. After tlmt he wi^ed to confess
he had gone on a raid against the Papagoes to
recover his children. He liked Lieutenant Whit-
man, but he was so unhappy that if he had not
heard that the commissioner was coming, he
never would have come in.
"<}ommissioner Colyer told them that 'they
must not fi^t the Papagoes or white people any
more. He had already sent for the chUdren, and
when he got back to Washington he would ask
the President to request the Government of Mex-
ico to return their children.'
"Es-cim-en-zeen said, 'It seems to him now as
if he had his children in his own hands. God had
certainly put it in my heart. He was very
"Commissioner Colyer said that he would ride
up the valley with them this morning to see the
place of the massacre and hear their story.
TEE PEACE O0MMI88ION. 241
'*Es-eim-en-zeen: 'A long time ago they took
off a wife of his, and be believed ^e now is at
Port McDowell. Na-zen-i-cleeisbername. She
is living in the bouse of one of the captains of the
"September 19, 1871. — Captain Chiquito, of
the Aravaipa. The conmussioner told bim he
was glad that be bad seen him before he left for
"'Captain Chiquito: *He has nothing more to
say than the other chiefs had said ; he confirms all
that they have said ; be bad heard that bis father
and mother bad come and he asked to see him.
The same God who rules the sun, he believes, bad
sent me here to see them. Ever since the other
Indians had told him that I was here he wished
to see me, and for that reason he bad hurried in
from the hills. It must have been God who had
put it into both of our hearts to hurry to see each
other. He thanks us for having sent him out
food and clothing last night.*
"Two Pinal Indians came with Es-cim-en-
zeen. Says that yesterday he sent a boy named
TJn-pin-al-kay to the Finals, and about noon he
saw a smoke on his trail, and he don^ know what
it means imless he saw his people. He was to re-
turn in four days. He will bring in all the peo-
ple he can. He IJiougbt that all l£e Finals would
come into this reservation as soon as they heard
of the treatment he was receiving.
"I visited the scene of the massacre on Sxmday
morning, September 17th ; some of the skulls of
the In^ans, with their temple bones beaten in,
lay exposed by the washing of the rain and the
feeding of the wolves. I overtook Es-cim-en-
id By Google
212 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
zeen, who had ridden before us, and found him
wiping the tears from his eyes when he saw them.
"By referring to accompanying papers, It will
be seen that the account of this horrible mass^re
as giTen by Lieutenant Royal E. Whitman, Third
Cavalry United States Army, the officer in
charge of the camp at the time, is amply sus-
tained by his brother officers and citizens then
present. Some of these affidavits make the affair
even more horrible tiian Lieutenant Whitman
described it to be.
"OPPOSITION TO THE INDIAN PEACE
"The 'Arizona Citizen,' a professedly republi-
can paper, published at Tucson, and the 'AJnzona
Miner,' democratic paper from Preseott, have
been excessive in their abuse of Lieutenant Whit-
man, Colonel Green, and all other officers of the
army who have shown the least sympathy for the
Apaches, charging them with many crimes. The
editors seem to fear the damaging effect pro-
duced in the public mind by the statements made
officially by these Army officers of the general
good conduct of the Apaches whenever they have
been allowed an opportunity to display it, and of
the horrible brutahties committed by the people
of Arizona upon them at the Camp Grant massa-
cre. Their statements that the Indians left that
reservation and went on raiding parties against
the citizens is denied by every officer and citizen
at the post.
"Oscar Hutton, an old pioneer, who has the
reputation of having personally killed more In-
dians that any other man in Arizona, testifies un-
THE PEACE O0MMI88I0N. 243
der oath not only that the statement of Lieuten-
ant Whitman is correct, but that he had never
seen Indians on a reservation or at peace about a
military post mider so good subjection, so well
satisfied and happy, or more teachable and obedi-
ent, tiian were these. * I was repeatedly requested
to watch every indication of anything like treach-
ery on their part, and I will give it as my deliber-
ate judgment that no raidang party was ever
made up from the Indians fed at this post I
have every reason to believe liiat had tiey been
unmolested, they would have remained and would
have gradually increased in numbers, as they con-
stantly had been doing up to the time I left the
"And Mr. F. L. Austin, the post trader, a gen-
tlemen well known and respected, not only
fully indorses Lieutenant Whitman's statement
throughout, but says, 'the Indians, while here,
seemed to be under perfect control, and in all my
business with them, in paying for some one hun-
dred and fifty tons of hay for the contractor,
never had any trouble or difficulty of any kind.
They very readily learn any little customs of
trade, etc. It is my opinion they would have re-
mained and increased in numbers had they not
"Mr. Miles L. Wood, the beef contractor for
the military, testifies that he 'was not absent one
day, and personally issued every pound of beef
drawn by them. They brou^t tickets to me, on
which I issued. After completing the issue, I
took the tickets to acting commissary of subsis-
tence, wid verified them by the official count of
that day. I never had any trouble in my deliv-
244 HISrOBY OF ABIZONA.
ery. Lieutenant Whitman selected an IJidian
for policeman, gave him his orders, and good or-
der was always preserved. I have lived in Cali-
fornia, and have seen a great deal of Indians.
Have heard a good deal of the Apaehes, and was
much surprised at the general intelligence and
good behavior of those I saw at this post. '
"William Kness, the mailcarrier at the post,
swears that thou^ he has lived on the Pacific
coast for twenty-six years, familiar with Indians,
and prejudiced against the Apaches, yet 'made it
a point to study the character and habits of the
Apache ]jidiu)s at €amp Grant, before the mas-
sacre, and the result was that I was convinced
that they were acting in good faith and earnestly
desired peace. They were industrious, the
women particularly so. Among all the Indians
I have ever seen I have never met with as great
regard for virtue and chastity as I have found
among these Apache women. In regard to the
charge that after they were fed they went out on
raiding parties, I have to say that I do not believe
it They were contented imder our supervision,
being in every three days for rations, and their
faces familiar, and their number constantly in-
creasing. I have read the statement of Oscar
Button in regard to tiiis point, and I have no
doubt that he is correct, that no raiding parties
were ever made by the Indians from this post. I
also believe that if the massacre had not occurred
we should have had from eight himdred to one
thousand Apache Indians on this reservation be-
fore this time.'
"On the day of my arrival at Camp Grant,
finding that no copy of the orders of the War De-
id By Google
THE PEACE COMMISSION. 245
partment dated Washington, Jvlj 18, 1871, had
yet been received here by General Crook, I
took the liberty of inclosing copies, and also a
copy of the instructions of the Literior Depart-
ment, to biTTi for his information.
"Ik our interviews with the chiefs of the Ara-
vaipa and Pinal Apaches at Camp Grant we
found that, notwithstanding so many of their
people had been killed at Camp Grant, they still
clung to the Aravaipa and San Pedro Valleys as
their home, and would not listen to our proposal
to remove them over to the White Mountains.
Believing it better, for the sake of peace, that
their wishes should be acceded to for the pres-
ent, in consultation with the officers of the post
we concluded to fix the limits of their reservation
as follows: Boimded north by the Gila River;
west by a line ten miles from and parallel to the
generaJ course of the San Pedro River ; south by
a line at right angles to the western boundary,
crossing the San Pedro ten miles from Camp
Grant ; east by a line at right angles to the south-
em boundary, touching the western base of
Mount Trumbull, terminating at the Gila River,
the northern boundary.
"We carefully instructed the chiefs about
these boundaries, impressing it upon their minds
that they must not go beyond them; that while
within these limits they would be protected and
fed; if they went beyond they would become ob-
jeets of suspicion, and liable to be punished by
both citizens and soldiers. They said they under-
"Our first intention was to limit the boimd-
aries of the reservation to a distance of ten miles
246 HI8T0BT OF ARIZONA.
square on each side of the post ; but as the Gila
Biver on the north did not much exceed th&t dis-
tance, and formed a good natural boundary
which the Indians could easily remember, and the
country on the east was a barren waste, yielding
nothing that the white man cared for, but con-
siderable food, such as mescal, mesquite beans,
and cactus fruit, of which the Apaches were very
fond, we concluded to extend the limits to the
GUa River on the north, and the westerly base of
Mount Trumbull on the east. The assurances
given to us ty the officers and citizens most fami-
liar with the habits of the Indians before re-
ferred to, that they would not leave the reserva-
tions if properly fed and cared for, dismissed all
doubts from our mind concerning this point.
' ' Should the Government approve my action in
locating this reservation, there are some improve-
ments made by several settlers, on the San Pedro,
which should be appraised by Government
officers and the owners paid for them. Several
of the ranches are good adobe buildings, which
will be of value for the use of the Indian Depart-
ment. While it is true that no claim of pre-emp-
tion by settlers holds good as against the Govern-
ment, when made on Government land not yet
surveyed, yet it is but fair that where the im-
provements can be of use to the Government, as
in this case, the owners should be compensated.
**As the mountains are barren and the valleys
infected with a malarial fever, the tract of
country designated above is worth little or noth-
ing to anyone but the Indians, who are accli-
mated. And as it is absolutely necessary that a
certain and well-defined tract shall be fii^ set
id By Google
THE PEACE COMMISSION. 247
apart for them before we can expect them to leave
the highways and other portions of the Territory,
it seemed to me that justice, as well as wisdom,
suggested that we should select such places as
they themselves chose and would reside upon —
where we could protect and civilize them.
"That the massacre at Camp Grant fairly il-
lustrates the sentiment of a large portion of the
people of Arizona and New Mexico on the Indian
question, is painfully confirmed by the fact that
nearly every newspaper here has either justified
or apologized for the act. That the President's
'peace policy,' so popular in the States, does not
meet with much approval out here is unquestion-
ably true ; and any one who comes here to exe-
cute it must expect to meet with disapprobation.
I have been met with a storm of abuse from these
newspapers in their every issue ; but, thank God,
it does me no harm, and though I have received
positive assurances that my life would "be in dan-
ger if I visited certain localities, yet, as much of
this is probably mere bluster, I ^ould go there if
my official duties required it.
"Probably I should not have referred to these
threats if the Governor of the Territory, A. P. K.
Safford, Esq., had not taken the precaution to
issue a 'proclamation' in the 'Arizona Citizen,'
calling upon the people to treat the commission-
ers 'kindly,* as though the governor supposed
they were not likely to treat us kindly, unless he
took some such extraordinary means as this to
induce them to do so. This proclamation con-
cludes with the following words: 'If they (the
commissioners) come among you entertaining er-
roneous opinions upon the Indian question and
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246 HISTOBT OF ABIZONA.
the ccmdition of affairs in this Territory, then, by
kindly treatment and fair, truthful representa-
tion, you will be enabled to convince them of their
errors.' A manifesto so remarkable, that we
thought, in kindness to the governor, the less no-
tice I took of it the better.
"There is evidently a wrong impression in the
minds of the editors of these newspapers concern-
ing the object of our visit to these Territories.
They seem to think that we have come to 'exam-
ine into the Indian Affairs of the Territories'
generally; whereas, our instructions from tbe
President, through the Secretary of the Interior,
are simply to 'locate the nomadic tribes upon
suitable reservations, bringing them under the
control of the proper officers of the Indian De-
partment, and supplying them with necessary
subsistence, clothing, and whatever else may be
id By Google
THE PEACE GOMMiaaiON'.
THE PEACE COMMISSION (Contmoed).
The Fbontiebsman's Sympathy With the
Peace Pouox — Gh-a River Agenot — Tonto
Apaches at Camp McDowell — Report op
J. H. Stout, Special Indian Agent — Re-
port OP Colonel N. A. M. Dudley — ^Report
op Captain James Curtis— Talk With Da-
Ohat-Ta and Shelter Pau — Report op
Captain Netterville — Report of Colonel
"Camp McDowell, Arizona Territoiy.
"September 24, 1871.
"We left Camp Grant at 6 o'clock, eyeniug,
September 19, preferrine: a night ride to the hot
sun across the desert of fifty miles, from the San
Pedro to the Gila River. We arrived at Plor-
ence, a new and enterprising town, chiefly occu-
pied by Americans, on the Gila, by noon the next
day. Here I met a nmnber of citlzMis, and a
party of miners who had just returned from an
unsuccessful tour of prospecting among the
Pinal Mountains near by. They all wished me
'God-speed,' and said they 'hoped before God the
President would be successful in his efforts to
bring in the Lidians upon the reservations.*
Nothing could have been kinder than their ex-
pressions of hearty good-will toward the present
administration. Prom this I infer that I may
have been hasty in my conclusions contained at
the close of my last letter, that the 'peace policy'
toward the Indians was unpopular in Arizona.
id By Google
250 HISrORT OF ARIZONA.
I arrived at that impression from reading the
newspapers of Tucson and Prescott. But I am
told that these papers only reflect the opinions of
the traders, army contractors, barroom and
gambling saloon proprietors of these two towns,
who prosper during the war, but that the hardy
frontiersman, the miner, poor laboring men of
the border, pray for peace, and I believe it.
"Our ride down the dusty valley of the Gila,
from Florence to the Pima and Maricopa reser-
vation, a distance of twenty-eight miles, in the
hot sun, on horseback, the thermometer standing
at 135 in tiie sun, 1(H in the shade, was fearful.
l^e men and anijnals were thoroughly used up.
"GILA RIVER AGEN€T.
"The agency biiilding is a good one, though too
small for the work to be done. A school house and
room for the teacher should be built. Agent Stout
and his young wife, the Rev. Mr. Cook, the
teacher, and the physician, were at home and at-
tending to their duties. Mr. Stout complained
of want of means, the remittances received from
Superintendent Bendell being too small to meet
the quarterly dues for salaries of the officers.
"The chiefs were called together the next
day, September 22, and we had a talk with
them. Those present were Antonio Azul, the
head chief; Swa-mas-kor-si, chief of Ki-ki-mi
village; Ki-o-sot, 2nd chief of Ki-ki-mi vil-
lage; Ki-co-chin-cane, chief of Shu-uk village;
Miguel, chief of Staw-to-nik village; Candela,
chief of Stu-ka-ma-soo-satick village; Se-per,
chief of Pep-chalk village. I told them that, by
the President's directions, I had been sent to
id By Google
THE PK&OE COMMISSION. 251
learn about their troubles, especially with regard
to their quarrel with the settlers on Salt River,
and tile diversion of the supply of water from
their acequias, and to inform them that, under
your direction, I had set apart reservations for
the Apaches. They, in common with the Pajwi-
goes, have been in the habit of raiding on the
Apaches, and I informed them that this must
cease ; that if the Apaches came down there and
troubled tiiem they were to defend themselves
and punidi the Apaches ; but that they must not
go up to the Apache country and make war on
them, unless they were requested to do so, offi-
ci^y, by some Army officer, which request would
come through their agent. I told them they must
also quit their raids on the white settlers on the
Salt River, or else they would be pimished. They
had made several wholly unprovoked attacks on
the settlers on tiie Salt River, destroying their
crops of com and tearing to pieces their houses
and furniture; one poor man, now employed as
farm hand at the agency, having lost everything
he possessed by them.
"The chiefs replied that they had some bad
young men in their tribe, as we had among white
men. That they go up Salt River, notwithstand-
ing their remonstrances against it; if they got
into trouble or were killed they could not help it
and no one would be sorry, but that their whole
tribe ought not to suffer for it. They have always
lived peaceably with the whites and they meant
to continue to do so. They said they reqtiired
more land than the present limits of their reser-
"In their early days they lived more by hunt-
ing; deer abounded in that country before the
252 HI8T0BT OF ABIZOKA.
white man came, and that with deer meat and
mescal they then got along very well, but that now
they had to depend for subsistence almost wholly
upon farming, and as they now had schools and
were rapidly learning the ways of the white man,
they needed more land and larger water privi-
'*They were always led to suppose that the
white men wanted them to kill the Apaches, but
that if they knew the boundaries of the Apache
reservation, they would keep off from it. I ex-
plained the boundaries of the Camp Grant reser-
vation and told them that the Apaches com-
plained bitterly of the Pimas and Papagoes for
their constant warfare upon them and particu-
larly of late of the Papagoes for having assisted
at me massacre at Camp Qrant and carrying ofE
their children into slavery, and again repeated
that these feuds must cease. That the Presid^it
would have peace. They promised to tell their
young men, separated from us on very good
terms, and, lingering about the agency for some
time, rode off well mounted on brisk looking
ponies. Most of the tribe seemed quite prosper-
ous and independent in their manner; indeed,
this last quality they carry so far it becomes rude-
ness. They have a very large idea of their own
importance and prowess, and I was informed
that on one occcasion when Colonel Alexander,
who commanded at Camp McDowell, the nearest
military post, threatened them with chastisement
for some misconduct, they drew up five hundred
fighting men of their tribe and dared him to come
on. As Colonel Alexander had but one small
company of cavalry, he had to forego the chas-
ed By Google
THE I^ACE 00MMIS8I0N. 253
"I fear their youiijif men will need a little dis-
ciplining before we shall have things run alto-
gether smoothly on their reservation, and I sin-
cerely hope Congress will make provision to
purchase the additional land they really need for
their support and comfort.
"The school under Rev. Mr. Cook i& hopefully
under way, and I think the Government is fortu-
nate in securing his efficient and earnest services.
"On my return to Washington I received the
following letter from the agent, showing how
much the Pimas and Maricopas are suffering
from the want of the water of the Gila River, di-
verted hy the white settlers, and how serious is
their dissatisfaction :
"•UNITED STATES INDIAN AGENCY,
" 'Gila River Reservation, Arizona Territory.
" 'October 19, 1871.
" 'Dear Sir: When you were here it was sup-
posed from the amount of water in the bed of the
river above here that there would be a sufficient
quantity to reach the lower part of this reserve to
enable our Indians to irrigate their fields as usual
in preparing them for the reception of their
crops. Though there was apparently plenty of
water for that purpose, and though it continued
to rise for a whUe after you left, it has now fallen
to its normal state, and not a drop of it has
reached their fields. The time for preparing
their lands is now at hand, but having no water
they can do nothing.
" 'People who have lived on the Gila for years
tell me there never was before such a thing as a
dry riverbed on this reserve this time of the year.
254 HISTO&T OF ABIZONA.
As a matter of course, our Indians are very much
dissatisfied and blame the settlers who are above
us for taking away their water. On Sunday
morning last, Ohin-kum, a chief of one of the
lower T^ages, and one of the best chiefs in the
reserve, came to me and said that for many years
he and his people had 'lived from what they
planted,' but now they had no water; white men
up the river had taken it from them, etc After
spending a few moments in telling me of his
wrongs, he made known the object of his visit,
which was to obtain leave to take the warriors of
his village, numbering one hundred and twenty-
seven men, and by force of arms drive the whites
from the river.
*"I was not a little astonished at this manifes-
tation, but quietly told Chin-kum he must not go.
I spent an hour in telling him of the fearful re-
sults which must surely follow such a step, and
finally succeeded in inducing him not to go. But
he told me this, that he would wait one month,
and if the water did not come to them then, he
would take his whole village, which numbered
one hundred families, and move to the Salt River
settlements, where, as he said, there is always
water. As the settlers of that vicinity are and
have been for years at enmity with these Indians,
I assured him that trouble would certainly follow
such a step as that, and urged him to remain
on the reserve. He went away silenced, but not
satisfied, and I have not the lightest doubt that
in a month from now he and his village wiU leave
** 'Day before yesterday Ku-vit-ke-chin-e-kum,
chief of the Va-Vak village, called and said he
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THE FEA.CE OOMMIB8I0X. 255
was going to Salt River with Ms tribe, as there
is no water for his fields. I of course told ^^iTn
not to go, but I am afraid it did no good. There
are six or seven other villages on that part of
the reserve, which is about the only part of it
that can ever be reached by the water, the rest
of the land being too high ; and if the water does
not come soon I think they will all leave.
" * These Indians have always been well-dis-
posed toward our Government, and for years
they have served as a protection to travellers on
this route from Texas to the Pacific coast. They
claim the land lying above them on the Gila,
but long since gave it up 'because they were as-
sured that when they needed it they should have
it. It seems to me that that time has come, and
while these Indians are still friendly to the
whites, it would, in my opinion, be a wise plan
to give them a portion of the land they claim.
A few thousand dollars would do this now, and
may, perhaps, avoid an expenditure of ten-fold
proportions, in case there should be trouble be-
tween them and the citizens here. The super-
intendent of Indian Affairs is away on business
at San Francisco just now, so I write this to you.
'* 'Very respectfully, Ac,
" 'J. H. STOUT,
'* 'United States Special Indian A^ent.
*' 'Hon. Vincent Colyer.'
"We left the Pima agency on the evening of
the 22d, preferring night riding to the hot sun
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256 HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA.
across the desert to McDowell, arrivinff at Desert
Station, twenty-five miles, at four o'clock in the
morning, and leaving there at nine in the morn-
ing, readied. Camp McDowell at nine at ni^ht,
meeting with a cordial and hospitable reception
from General N. A. M. Dudley and the other offi-
cers at the post.
"My object in coming here is to open commu-
nications with the Tonto Apaches, and for this
purpose General Dudley has this morning sent
out runners with white flags, Mid kintfled *a
smoke.' I am informed that Da-chay-ya, the
able chief of the Tontos, has been in at McDowell
several times during the past few years, and
that on two occasions he has been dealt with very
treacherously ; at one time shot in the back, and
at Miother time attempted to be poisoned by a
post doctor ; whether he will answer my call re-
mains to be seen. A party of Indians was re-
ported last evening as having been seen by two
straggling soldiers, making signs as if they
wished to come in, a few miles below the post.
As I had informed the Indians at €amp Grant
that I was coming here, and they had sent run-
ners up this way, the officers here think that the
Indians know it and wish to come in.
"4 p. m. The Indians have kindled their an-
swering fires upon the top of tiie Sierra Aneha —
a high mountam twenty miles from here — ^north-
ward, near old Fort Reno. They are evidently
in earnest, as the smoke at times is dense, ex-
tending at intervals over a distance of a quarter
of a mile. "We hope to see some of the Tontoa
"Two companies of the Third United States
Cavalry, being part of Colonel Henry's and Gen-
THE F£A,CE 00MMIS8I0N. 257
eral Crook's command, are camped below here
under waiting orders.
"I inclose copy of my ofl&cial letter to General
Dudley asking for detachment of soldiers to open
commxmications with the Tonto Apaches, and
his reply thereto. — V. €. ' *
"CAMP Mcdowell, aeizona tbrei-
"September 27, 1871—11 P. M.
"The party with the flag of truce, sent out at
my request, by General Dudley, to try to open
coromunications with the Tonto Apaches, re-
turned this afternoon, having been only partially
successful, as you will see by the report inclosed
from Major Curtis. He had seen several In-
dians on the hills, exchanged friendly signals
vnth them, and after spending a day immediately
surrounded by them, had separated from them
without any indications of ill will or molestation.
It is very difficult to obtain their confidence so
soon after they have been pursued by the soldiers,
and as I am now dealing with another band of
Apaches, different in their habits, and living
quite apart from the Pinals, Ooyoteros, Arav-
aipas, and the other bands with whom I so re-
cently have held friendly intercourse, I am not
in the least discouraged at Major Curtis not hav-
ing brought in any of the tribe. As you will see
from his report he is quite suiguine that they
will come in soon.
"In the event that they should come in I have
provided that General Dudley, commandant of
McDowell, should feed, protect, and otherwise
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258 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
care for them at this post, until such time as he
may have a sufficient number, when he can re-
move them to Gamp Grant. Meanwhile, in order
that they may be thus looked after, I was com-
pelled to declare this military reservation, five
miles square, a temporary Indian reservation,
which I did with the advice of the military offi-
cers at this place. As soon as we can see how
many of them come in, and learn their wishes
as to a locality for their home, I have arranged
with General Dudley that he should communicate
with the Department, and it can order their re-
moval. For the present, I am only anxious to
keep them in from the warpath, and to get them
to look upon the Government as their friend.
Other things will follow.
"That there may be no delay in this, and that
every effort may be made to get them in, I re-
quested. Captain Thomas McGregor, who com-
mands a detachment of troops in the field, under
marching orders (temporanly suspended) from
General Grook, to send out another fiag of truce
in another direction to the Tonto country.
"AltJiough copies of your instructions of July
21, and orders of War Department July 18 and
31, written at the suggestion of the President,
were forwarded to General Crook from Camp
Apache, September 7, and have been received
there, and an express messenger arrived here
from there yesterday, yet no copies were for-
warded to the officers here. They are much
troubled about it and have written to the general.
Fortimately it has made no difference in my
progress, as I have gone right on with my work,
and tiie officers here as well as at Camps Grant
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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 259
and Apache have not hesitated to carry out these
orders. I mention it only that you may fully
comprehend the situation. Probably General
Crook's movements have disarranged his maiL
"Altogether, I feel greatly encouraged and
am confident that in Arizona, and among the
Apaches, the President's policy of peace will be
as successful as it has been in all other portions
of the Indian country.
"I leave for Camp Verde (D. V.) tomorrow.
— V. C.
"Since my return to Washington I have re-
ceived the following report of the coming in of
the Tonto Apaches to Camp McDowell, Arizona
*' 'Camp McDoweU, Arizona Territory,
" 'November 2, 1871.
" *Sir: As you will remember, just before you
left McDowell I sent Major Curtis out with a
white flag to old Port Reno ; he was at the time
unsuccessful in his attempt to open communica-
tion with them notwithstanding he saw several
Indians on the bluffs and hills near bJTn, none of
whom showed any hostile demonstrations. He
left his flag in the old ruin of a chimney of the
stockade, returning to McDowell. This expedi-
tion had its good results, as events since have
proved. The Tontoa saw the soldiere with an
emblem of peace. It was a strai^ sight.
Days passed and no Apache visited the post;
signal fires were constantly kept burning during
the night at the garrison for some time. At la^
a party of four came in. I received them
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260 HrarOBI OF ARIZONA.
warmly, took them to my quarters, and had a
long talk with the principal man among them,
*One-Eyed Riley.' He had been twice in at Mc-
Dowell two or three years since, and was recog-
nized by Lieutenant Grant, who had, I think,
met him at Reno. He said the Tontos wanted
to know what the soldiers were goii^ to do ; that
he had been sent in to find out what the white
flag meant in tiie hands of the soldiers ; that if
we said peace, they were ready. I assured him
that the President wanted all fighting to cease;
that he was ready to feed and reasonably to
clothe all good Indians who would come in with
their families and do right ; that I could not talk
with him more fully as I wanted to see some of
the great men of the tribe; that I would clothe
him, give him a good supply of provisions for
his party, and he must go out and bring in a
good number of chiefs. He asked for six days.
I gave ^im the time, and faithful to the hour he
sent in a principal man, who possessed most ex-
cellent sense. He said they were all ready for a
peace; they were tired living in holes and on the
tops of mountains; now their women and chil-
dren had to pack all their water two and three
miles ; they could not go down to the streams at
all except at night, for fear of the soldiers ; that
they had to scatter in parties of two and three
to sleep in safety ; that they hid their infants and
small children away in the holes among the ro(is
for safety ; even the rabbits were safer than the
Indians ; that their people were all nearly starv-
ing; that they must steal or starve; l^at the
toldiers had <Mven them away from Uieir eom-
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THE PEACE COMHISBION. 261
fields ; game was scarce ; tbey were afraid to go
out and hunt. He spoke of his children, four
of whom had been killed by the soldiers, with
tears running down his cheeks. He wanted to
make a big peace, roll a rock on it, and make it
last till the rain came and washed the rock level
with the land ; that God told him he must come
into McDowell that day and do all he could to
make the big soldiers' hearts like his — ready to
do what was right. He said he did not want
any blanket that day for he was satisfied that
the soldiers now wanted to do right, and he
wanted to go back and induce Da-chay-ya and all
his captains to come in, and the blankets and
clothes would retard his rapid travelling. I
have been present at a great many talks witi In-
dians on the plains the last seventeen years, but
I have to acknowledge that I have never seen
more feeling or good sense exhibited by an In-
dian than t^s Apache showed. He asked for
five days to go and see all his people ; said they
would take different directions, and get as many
to come in as possible. He expressed great fear
of the Pimas; did not want them allowed to
come into camp while the Apaches were here. I
sent a military escort out in their rear, and for-
tunate that I did, for some lurking Pimas were
lying in wait for them out on the trail, all of
whom were brought into camp and told if they
even fired at an Apache on the reservation I
would shoot them as readily as we had been
shooting the Apaches. Up to the time I was re-
lieved (Major Curtis has succeeded me in com-
mand), I would not permit the Pimas to come
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262 HI8T0BY OF ARIZONA..
near the garrison when I could prevent it. I
consider it unfortunate that the Pimas are al-
lowed by their agent to come to McDowell at
present. This party brought in some eighty or
more Indians of the Tonto Band. Major Curtis
was much engaged at the time they came in and
did not have the opportimity to give them the
attention they expected,
" 'The Indian ration was reduced to one
pound of beef and one pound of flour, or rather
com, upon which an Indian cannot subsist, and
of course will not be content with it, as they have
neither roots, game, nor fruit here to eke out the
ration. I do not believe it requisite to keep
them near McDowell. All that I have talked
with express a desire to be allowed a reservation
near Reno or Sunflower Valley ; these points are
away from the Pimas, from settlements, and
need have only one company of soldiers near
them with their agent. There is not a particle
of doubt in my mind, all the stories to tiie con-
trary, that they, at this moment, are anxious for
a peace, and a lasting one. No man can talk
with them an hour without being convinced of
" 'Captain McNetterville, who has been out by
direction of Major Ourtis, and had a talk with
Da-chay-ya, on his return seemed to have been
most favorably impressed with their sincerity;
before, I believe, ne never had any confidence
in them, and was in favor of exterminating them
if possible. Dr. Howard, the medical officer who
accompanied Captain McNetterville, expressed
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THE raiACB COMMISSION. 263.
great surprise at tbe intelligeDce and earnestness
shown by their talk and manner.
" 'It must not be e^)ected that a peace made
with these various bands, scattered all over a
great, wild territory like Arizona, New Mexico,
and Sonora, will be perfect for a long time.
Many bad Indians will refuse to come in. These
will have to be hunted down ; and if the good ones
are now cared for, properly fed, reasonably
clothed, and kindly treated, they can easily be
induced, in my opinion, to help catch this class
of renegades and bring them to proper pimish-
ment. It is going to take a good deal of patience,
careful judgment, forbearance and humane treat-
ment; but I have the strongest belief it can be
accomplished. If we fight them one or two years,
it has to be done in the end ; for it is not to be sup-
posed the Government is going to keep up a per-
petual war on them.
" 'If I remain in the Territory, I only ask that
I may be stationed at a post overlooking a reser-
vation; for I know a race of beings possessing
the intelligence so prominently exhibited by the
Apaches can be taught to appreciate the advan-
tages of living at peace with the whites, whom
they frankly recognize as every way superior to
themselves. But this desira'ble result can never
be brought about by following two directly oppo-
site policies at the same time — one war, the other
" 'With best wishes, &e.
" *N. A. M. DUDLEY,
" 'Brevet Colonel, United "States Army.
" 'Hon. VINCENT COLYER.'
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2(4 maroKs of abizona.
*' CAPTAIN CURTIS 'S REPORT OF AR-
RIVAL OF EIGHTY TONTO APACHES
*' 'Headquarters Camp McDowell, Arizona
" 'Sir: Since your departure I have been stead-
H^ engaged in trying to open commimication
with the Tontos and Apache-Mohaves. They
sent in a messenger about October 14, and by
the 20th I had in over eighty of them, from the
two different bands above stated. Es-cal-la-tay,
the head of the Four Peak Indians, came witii
his band, and the Apache-Mohaves with their
own chief. I had only a short talk with them
at the time, they being willing to wait until others
would get in, so as to have a grand council and
settle the whole matter. Da-chay-ya, with his
Indians, had not yet arrived. At this juncture
of affairs, and after they had been camped near
me for three days, they suddenly disappeared
about midnight, and went back to tiieir moxmtain
"I found upon inquiry that some rascally Mex-
icans had been talking to them, and, as near as
I could learn, frightened them out by telling
them that the Pimas were coming after them.
I cannot prove this, but I believe it. TTiat these
Indians have a great dread of the Pimas is well
known. I have written the Indian agent at Sac-
aton, Mr. J. H. Stout, telling him that he must
keep his Pimas and Maricopas away from this
post. These Mexicans are many of them guides,
&c., and are well aware of the fact that if we
make peace their occupation will be gone.
THE PEACE C0MKI8SI0K. 265
" 'Two days after these Indians left I sent
Captain Netterville, Twenty-first Infantry, to
Simflower Valley, thirty miles from here, to re-
new communications and find out what was the
matter. Inclosed please see his order, private
instructions, and copy of report.
" 'They do not wish to come here and stay, for
two or three very strong reasons : 1. They are
afraid of the Pimas and Maricopas, and the lat^
ter can readily reach this place. 2. They are
too far from their mountains to gather fruit
or mescal or to hunt, and without some such aid
they cannot subsist on a pound of beef and one
of flour. 3. They have a natural indisposition
to leave a country where they have always been
accustomed to live. 4. They say that they can
plant and get plenty of water on Tonto Oreek
(near Reno). It is, however, difficult to supply
Camp Keno, as the road is very bad. Troops
were stationed there at one time, but the post
was broken up on this account.
" 'It seems to me that there ought to be a
trusty agent constantly on the spot here to attend
to all these things. I have but $400 that I can
expend for them, which is but a drop in the
bucket, when they all need blankets and clothing.
All that I can do is to give them a little manta,
calico, and tobacco. Then, again, I am peculiarly
situated. If I take the responsibility of declar-
ing a temporary reservation, my action may
be disapproved by the department commander,
or I may not be able to get the means of supply-
ing it. Troops should be with them wherever
they may be, and I have not the power to put
them there. One thing seems to me certain, that
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266 HI8T0BY OF ABIZONA.
they will never be contented near tills post. I
believe that it Is better to so shape things as not
to crowd them. The whole country around
Reno, Tonto Creek, and Greenback Creek is un-
settled by the whites, and they never go there.
It seems to me that Tonto Valley is the place for
them. It can be supplied with flour by pack
trains, and beef can be driven there.
" 'Tonto and Greenback Valleys (the latter
about twenty miles southeast of Reno) are said
by those who have been there to be the best
adapted places for this purpose in this whole
Territory. Greenback Valley is small, but very
Eretty, and has plenty of timber and grass and
ne bottom land for cultivation with but little
irrigation. The road from here to Reno, as I
said before, is very bad, but Reno can be sup-
plied, as stated, fey pack trains for the present.
*' 'I hope that you will take some action in this
matter without delay. In the meantime I shall
try and collect these Indians here or at Sun-
flower, and let them, if there, send for tiieir
rations. It is impossible for me to send out
there, for I have not the means of so doing. Tou
can see that I am so situated that I cannot prom-
ise them anything, and the whole thing may fall
through for this reason. I think they mean to
make a lasting treaty of peace if they can be
made to feel that they are not being deceived.
" *I will advise you further when the grand
council is held.
*' *I am, sir, very respectfully,
" 'Captain Third Cavalry, Oommanding Post,
and ex-officio Indian Agent.
" 'Hon. VINCENT COLTER.'
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THE I-^EACB COMMISSION. 267
"TALK WITH DA-^HAT-TA AND SHEL-
TER PAU, HEAD CHIEFS OP THE
TONTO APACHES, AT McDOWELL.
*' 'Camp McDowell, Arizona, Tetritory,
"'November 2, 1871.
" 'Sir; I have the honor to report that, in
compliance with Special Orders No. 170, dated
Headquartere Camp McDowell, Arizona Terri-
tory, October 25, 1871, I left this post and pro-
ceeded to Simflower Valley, and complied as near
as possible with special instructions given me by
the post commander. I arrived at Simflower
Valley at 5 :30 P. M. on the 27th of October, and
went into camp at Stockade. On the morning
of the 26th I commenced building fires and kept
them burning during the day as signals. Oa
the morning of the 29th my signals were an-
swered from a hill near camp. At 10 o'clock
four Indians came into camp. I gave them some-
thing to eat and sent them out at once to tell their
chief, Da-chay-ya, to come in ; that I wanted to
have a talk with him. In the evening two more
Indians came in from another direction, who said
they belonged to Shelter Pan's band. I also
sent them out with the same instructions. On
the 30th four Indians and two squaws came into
camp with a message to me from Da-chay-ya
and Shelter Pan that they would come and see
me the next day. I gave these Indians some-
thing to eat, and sent them out of camp to come
in again when their chiefs came. On the 31st,
about twelve o'clock. Shelter Pan and forty war-
riors arrived. In the afternoon of the same day
Da-chay-ya, with twenty of his warriors, and
four or five squaws, with children, arrived. I
268 HI8T0BT OF ABIZONA.
had a talk with both chiefs that afternoon, and
told them my mission ; they appeared to be well
pleased with what I said to them, and would
reply to me the next morning. They were in a
very destitute condition, being nearly naked and
apparently suffering very much from the cold.
They both appeared to be anxious for peace, and
expressed a desire to live happily wittt all man-
kind. I gave each band a sack of flour and issued
them some beef. The next morning, November
1, both chiefs came into camp, and desired to
have a big talk. The following is what Da-
chay-ya said: *I don't want to run over the
mountains any more ; I want to make a big treaty ;
I will live with the soldiers if they will come to
Sunflower Valley or Camp Carroll, if Govern-
ment will establish a camp there ; I will make a
peace that will last; I will keep my word until
the stones melt; I cannot go to Camp McDowell
because I have no horses and wagons to move my
women and children, but at Camp Carroll I can
live near the mountains and gather the fruit
and get the game that is there. If the big cap-
tain at Camp McDowell does not put a post where
I say, I can do nothing more, for God made the
white man and God made the Apache, and the
Apache has just as much right to the country as
the white man. I want to make a treaty that
will last, 80 that both can travel over liie country
and have no trouble; as soon as a treaty is made
I want a piece of paper so that I can travel
over the country as a white man. I will put a
rock down to show that when it melts the teeaty
is to be broken. I am not afraid of the white
man or the Mexican, but I am afraid of the Pimas
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THE PEACE OOMMISaiON. 269
and Maricopas, who steal into my camps at night
and kill my women and diildren with clubs. If
I make a treaty I expect com and wheat, pmnp-
kin and melon seed, and I will plant near old
Camp Reno. I want the big captain to come and
see me ; see how I get along ; and will do whatever
he wants me to do. If I make a treaty I expect
the commanding officer will come and see me
whenever I send for him, and I will do the same
whenever he sends for me. If a treaty is made
and the commanding officer does not keep hie
promises with me I will put his word in a hole
and cover it up with dirt. I promise that when
a treaty is made the white man or soldiers can turn
out all their horses and mules without anyone to
look after them, and if any of them are stolen by
the Apaches I will cut my throat. I want to make
a big treaty, and if the Americans break the
treaty, I do not want any more trouble ; the white
man can take one road and I can take the other.
I will send some men with y ju to the big captain
at Camp McDowell, and when they return I want
him to put on a piece of paper what he promises,
so that I can keep it. Tell him that I am sick
now, but will go to see him in twelve days if I
have to crawl on my hands and knees to get to
him. TeU him that I wiU bring in all the wild
Apaches that I can, and if any will not come I
will tell the captain who they are and where they
live. I have got nothing more to say. '
" *I then asked Shelter Pau what he desired
to say. He said he had nothing more to say
than Da-chay-ya; he wanted the same as Da-
chay-ya did, and that he would come into the post
the same time as he did. I then gave each diief
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270 HraiORT OF ABIZOKA.
one beef and left the camp at Sunflower Valley at
10 o'clock, accompanied by sixteen Indians be-
longing to the two bands, and arrived at this post
tliis a. m. at seven o'clock, having marched a dis-
tance of sixty miles.
" 'I have reported the loss of one mule, which
was kicked by a horse and so badly disabled that
he had to <be shot, after which the Indians ate
" 'I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient
" 'W.MOC. NETTERVILLE,
'* 'Captain Twenty-first Infantey.
" 'First Lieutenant A. D. King, TJ. S. A.
" 'Post Adjutant, McDowell.'
" 'CAMP Mcdowell, Arizona teeri-
" 'November 17, 1871.
" 'Dear Sir: I thougjit you would be glad to
hear how your poIi<^ was working at this point.
Major Curtis has done all in his power, and
consulted my views in nearly all his actions. It
has been slow work, however, the responsibility
having to be taken for everything done.
" 'Captain McGregor's command has never
sent out the white flag you arranged f or ; I be-
lieve he intended to, but for some reason un-
known to me he did not do it. The company of
Mexicans enlisted as soldiers are still here, as
worthless a set and as idle as I want to see.
" 'Major Curtis and myself compared notes
night before last, and we coimted up about two
hundred Indians in all, who have come into
camp since you left, representing the Apache-
THE PEACE COMMISSION. 271
Mohaves, Four Peak, Da-chay-ya and Tonto
Apadies. Da-chay-ya, with fully eighty males, a
few boys ineludedj but no women, came into gar-
rison and was warmly received by Major Curtis.
He fed them the scanty allowance prescribed,
clothed up Da-ehay-ya and three other principal
men, and gave the four good blankets. The first
two days tiiey appeared quite happy and pleased.
On the afternoon of the 14th the major had a
talk with them. AH expressed a desire for peace.
Da-ehay-ya said he was sick; his breast, where
he was shot by an infamous surgeon, most foully,
gave TiiTTi great pain. He appeared earnest for
peace; said they were poor, starving, but that
his people could not come into McDowell and
live on the half ration allowed by the Govern-
ment; that there was no mescal, no game, no
chance to obtain anything beyond the pound of
com and poxmd of beef. His people would not
be satisfied; the soldiers had no right to expect
an Indian to Uve on less than a white man. Some
of the points put by Da-ehay-ya were discussed
at length. He seemed to comprehend the situa-
tion. It was explained to him that no officer
here was authorized to locate them on a reserva-
tion in their own country; that there was no
authority to increase his ration or give blankets
to his people. (Your order for blankets had
not come to hand approved, at the meeting of
this council) He appeared somewhat dissatis-
fied, but did not express it in words. Up to the
breaking up of the talk he asserted his wishes for
peace, and a good long one.
" 'He wanted to go out for a few days; said
he would come in again in four or five days.
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272 HI8T0BX OF ABIZONA.
Major Curtis told him that be would send off a
written treaty for the approve of the great chief
at Washington, the President. In it he would
recommend that a large tract of coimtry near
Reno, including Tonto Bottom and Sunflower
Valley, be reserved for their sole occupation;
that he would try and get an agent sent among
them for the purpose of instructing tiiem how
to cultivate the soil and use the implements which
the Government would undoubtedly furnish
them ; that the Government would in all proba-
bility locate a company of soldiers near them to
protect them from the Pimas and whites who
might attempt to hunt or locate on their groimds.
These points they seemed to be pleased with ; but
they could not live upon what tiiey were getting
" 'The council for the day was ended. They
sent their parties up to the wood yard at dark,
as they had been doing two nights previous, for
their night's supply of fuel, built their fires
and commenced cooking their beef. About seven
p. m. they suddenly left in a body, Da-chay-ya,
the Mohaves and all. That they were frightened
off by some parties or person no doubt can exist,
inasmuch as they left their meat cooking on the
fire ; besides, they left several of their bows and
quivers filled with arrows hanging on the trees
where they were encamped.
" 'At the council in the afternoon Da-chay-ya
stated that he would leave some of his men back
in garrison till he returned. What should have
so suddenly changed his mind none of us is at
all able to tell ; the Mexican soldiers and citizen
packers had free access to their camp, as well as
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THE PEACE OOMMISSION. 273
soldiers. No insult was offered or injury done
them that we know of.
" 'I feel very much disappointed at this result ;
everything promised so fair. I heard Da-
chay-ya say two or three times that all his people
would come in soon ; that the Four Peak Apache-
Mohaves were all in Sunflower Valley talking
about coming in; that he thought they woidd
come to the post with all their families in the
course of ten days, when they heard what the
soldiers had to say.
'* 'They have more warriors than I gave them
credit for; nearly all that came in with Da-
chay-ya were able-bodied men, only one or two
very old men in the party.
" 'I believe an influence was brought to bear
upon him by outsiders which frightened him off.
His former treatment made him suspicious and
fearful of some treachery, notwithstanding he
was assured that if no understanding was come
to, he should be allowed to go unmolested back
to his family, providing no depredations were
committed by ms band. Not a thing was taken
by one of them that I have heard of, and there
were hxmdreds of soldiers' shirts hanging on the
clothes lines of the laundresses near Sieir camp.
There is a singular mystery regarding their sud-
den departure that I cannot understand.
" 'The robbery of the mail stage and the killing
of five citizens, a week ago, by an imknown party,
near Wickenburg, of course is laid to the Indians.
At first even the Preseott papers partially ad-
mitted that it was a party of Mexican bandits
from Sonora. Indians, when they attack a stage,
are not apt to leave the horses, blankets, and
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274 HI8T0BT OF AIOZONA.
curtains of the coach behind; in this case they
did. I do not 'believe there was an Apache near
the scene of the murder. All honest men have
the same opinion, if they dared to express it
*' 'Touts truly, &e.,
" 'N. A. M. DUDLEY,
" 'Brevet Colonel United States Army.
" 'Hon. VINCENT COLTER,
" 'Commissioner.' "
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THE PR&CE COMMISSION. 275
THE PEACE COMMISSION (Continued).
Camp Vebde Ressbvation — The Apachh-Mo-
HAVES — Repobt op Rev. David White, Post
Chaplain — Abrival at Camp Whipple,
General Cbooe's Headqitabtebs— Refusal
TO Address Meeting op Citizens — Depar-
TTIBE from TeRRTPOBT — FiNAL -STATEMENT AS
TO Apaches Comino in.
"Camp Verde, Arizona Territory,
"October 3, 1871.
"We arrived at Camp Verde on the evening
of September 30; Qeneral Grover and the officers
under bis command at the post received us
kindly. Early in the morning after our arrival,
at my request, the General sent out an Indian
interpreter to inform the Apacbe-Mohaves of
our arrival, and to request them to meet us at
the Springs, twenty-five nules up the valley of
the Verde, on the foUowing noon. Arrange-
ments were made to have one thousand pounds of
com, three beef cattle, find a good supply of cloth-
ing forwarded to the Springs, and at daybreak
October 2, we were up and ready for tiie journey.
General Grover, a lieutenant (former command-
ant of the post), Mr. Beal, a citizen, Mr. Ward,
the interpreter, and an escort of five cavalry, ac-
companied us. The beef cattle were driven ahead,
and the com and clothing carried on twelve pack
mules. We arrived at ttie Springs about noon.
General Grover selected for our camp a clear
hilltop a short distance above the Springs, over-
276 HISTOBT OF ARIZONA.
looking the vaUey. There were no Indians to
be seen, though liiere was smoke burning up a
near ravine. The Indian interpreter informed
us that he had been to several of their villages,
and found many were sick from want of food,
but that all who were able had promised to come.
General Grover, thinking that the presence of
several white men who, returning from a deer
hunt, had followed us, might be one of the causes
of the absence of the Indians, suggested that
they leave us. I agreed with him, and the five
Apache-Mohaves arrived. Soulay was so ema-
ciated from sickness and hunger that the Gen-
eral hardly recognized him. He was so weak
he lay down on the ground, his head resting under
the shade of a sagebrush. There were no trees
near. The General thinking that he was suffer-
ing from an attack of intermittent fever, I pre-
pared a mixture of quinine and whisky and gave
it to him, but he soon asked for food, which we
gave him. After an hour or so he recovered his
strength and we had a talk. He pointed to the
valley of the Verde below, where a white man
had erected a cabin the year before, and said,
'Where that house stands I have always planted
com ; I went there this spring to plant com, and
the white man told me to go away or he would
shoot me; so I could not plant com there any
more. Many white men hunted for deer over
his mountains, like the three men who had just
gone down the valley; that if they met any In-
diana they shot them, and that they killed all the
game or frightened them so much the Indians
could not get near them with their bows and ar-
rows, and as the white people would not let tibem
THE PEACE COMMISSION. 277
have any ammunition, they could not kiU the
deer. There were some mesquite beans, mescal,
and cactus figs on the mountains, but they could
not live on that in the winter, and they did not
see what was left for them but to die. If they
went to the post to get some' food they could not
get any, and the general scolded them about their
young men stealing and drove them off- The
chiefs could not get anything for their people to
eat; they were gradually losing their influence
over their young men, who, finding themselves
starving, would occasionally go on t£e roads and
farms and steal stock to eat; they knew It was
wrong, but how could he stop it, or blame them,
when they were all dying for foodi' At my re-
quest the Indians kindled more fires, and sent
out three more runners to bring the Indians in.
During the afternoon four parties of three or
four each arrived ; they were hungry and nearly
naked, and confirmed tiie interpreter's story that
numbers of the Indians in the villages from which
they came were too sick to come in. We gave
them food and clothing. During the night sev-
eral fires answering our signals were seen on the
moimtains across the valley, and early the next
morning, October 3, a party of thirty men,
women and children arrived. After giving them
some food and clothing we had a talk. The chiefs
repeated nearly all that Soulay said the day be-
fore, and together earnestly desired that the val-
ley of the Verde from Camp Verde up to the old
Mexican wagon road, about forty-five miles, and
for a distance of ten miles on each side of the
river, mi^t be set apart for them as an Indian
reservation, and they agreed that if the Apache-
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278 HISTOBY OF ARIZONA.
Mohaves, who were scattered over the middle
and western portion of Arizona, who rendezvous
about Date Oreek, would come in and Uve with
them, they would make room for and welcome
them cheerfully upon their reservations. I asked
them if they would not be willing to go over to
Date Creek and have their home located there.
They said there were too many white people
around there, and the comitry did not suit them
as well as the valley of the Verde. General Gro-
ver and the officers and the citizens I met at the
post, all agreed that the valley of the Vej^de was
the best location for a reservation for them. Ac-
cordingly, on my return to the post this after-
noon, I addressed a letter to General Grover
setting apart the valley of the Verde as a reser-
vation for the Apache-Mohave Indians.
"Since my return to Wadiingtou I have re-
ceived the following letter from Rev. David
White, post chaplain, reporting the full success
in the coming in of over five hundred Apache-
Mohaves at Camp Verde Reservation :
*' *Camp Verde, Arizona Territory,
" 'November 22, 1871.
" 'Dear Sir: I write congratulating you on the
success of your mission to l£e Indians of this Ter-
ritory. Since you left, five hundred and eighty
Apache-Mohaves have been in and drawn rations.
It affords me pleasure to say that the food given
out by Gaptam Hawley (now in command) is
given in good faith. The Indians appear well
pleased. There is but little danger in travelling
anywhere on aceoimt of Indians. I have made
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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 279
the trip alone from here to Prescott. Otiiers
have done the same.
" 'Respectfully, your ohed ient servant,
" 'Chaplain United States Am^^.
" 'Hon. VIN-CENT COLYER.'
"Camp Whipple, near Prescott, Arizona,
"October 6, 1871.
"We arrived here on the evening of the 4th,
and were received quite cordially by General
Crook, who insisted upon my making his quar-
ters my home. Indeed, throughout my journey
in Arizona and New Mexico, I have been received
with the utmost kindness by the officers of the
Am^, as I have before reported.
"The general and I differed somewhat in opin-
ion as to the best policy to be pursued toward the
Apaches, but aa these differences were honestly
raitertained and kindly expressed, it did not
lessen the cordiality of our intercourse; and as
he desired me to frankly egress my opinion if
there was anything in his omcial action which I
questioned, and as he had been pleased to do the
same with me, much to my satisfaction, I told
bim I could not help expressing my regrets that
he should have felt it to be his duty to censure
Major Wm. Nelson for his manly defense of the
Indians on the reservation at Camp Grant
' ' The following day, with the advice of (3eneral
Crook and that of Captain Prederick Van Vliet,
who commands at Camp Hualapai, we arranged
that the Hualapai Indians, who congregate
around Beal Springs, a military post, about two
hundred miles to the northwest of Prescott,
id By Google
280 HraroBT of abizona.
should be fed at that post, and a temporary reser-
vation be declared one mile aroimd the camp
mitil a more permanent reservation could be
selected. The recent discovery of silver mines,
and the uncertainty of their precise location, in
the country inhabited by the Hualapai Indians,
made it impracticable for us to do any more than
the above for the present.
"General Crook also thought it not advisable
to attempt to move the Apaehe-Mohaves who
range through the country in the neighborhood
of Date Creek, this winter, to the reservation at
Camp Verde, but that they should be fed at Camp
Date -Creek until the spring, when they may con-
sent to move. With his advice, we therefore de-
cided to name that post, and for one mile aroimd
it, a temporary reservation, and General Crook
issued the necessary orders accordingly.
"Mr. Merriam, (Marion), the e&tor of the
'Arizona Miner,' and several other gentlemen,
called to invite me to address in public meeting
the citizens of Prescott on the Indian question.
I read to Mr. Merriam, (Marion) his editorials,
published before my arrival, wherein he called
me a 'cold-blooded scoundrel,' 'red-handed assas-
sin,' etc., and said, 'Colyer will soon be here,
* * * We ought, in justice to our murdered
dead, to dump the old devil into the shaft of some
mine, and pile rocks upon him until he is dead.
A rascal who comes here to thwart the efforts of
military and citizens to conquer a peace from our
savage foe, deserves to be stoned to death, like
the treacherous, black-hearted dog that he is,*
etc., and told him that I had no hsLakering after
that kind of ' mining. *
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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 281
"The gentleman assured me that they would
protect me with their rifles and revolvers; but
as my official duties were wholly with the Indians,
and the officers of the Government having them
in charge, and I was unable to see sufficient rea-
sons for addressing a public meeting in which I
should have to be protected with nfles and re-
volvers, I respectfully declined. Mr. Merriam
(Marion), gave me a beautiful specimen of gold
quartz, and I thought we had parted pretty good
friends, but three days after he published an edi-
torial containing several gross calmnnies, and
abusing me worse than ever. — V. C."
"Washington, D. €., December 20, 1871.
"We left Prescott for home Saturday morn-
ing, October 7, accompanied with many expres-
sions of goodwill from the officers of tiie Army
stationed at Camp Whipple.
"In passing through Kirkland Valley, near
Date Creek, the stage stopped at a farmer's house
and inn toward evening, where we found the fam-
ily greatly excited over the murder of an Indian.
Tlie landlord declined to give me the details of
the affair, and I vainly endeavored to obtain them
from a corporal and two soldiers who were stand-
ing there ; they having been sent for from Camp
Date Creek to protect the family. The landlord
asked for seats in the stage for his wife and
daughter to go to Wickenburg, saying he feared
an attack upon his house that night by Apache-
Mohave Indians, and wished to have his family in
a place of safety. As the Apache-Mohaves had
been for the last two years at peace, and were not
included among those against whom General
Crook was conducting his campaign, and, as I
282 HKFOBY OF ABIZONA.
have reported befoi%, are estimated to number
over two thousand people, the affair was impor-
tant. The ladies, who were refined and intelligent
persons, were taken in the coach, and from them
I learned the following particulars:
" 'The Ijidian was standing in the front door
of the tavern, when three white men came up the
road on horseback, and demanded a Henry rifle
which the Indian held in his hand. 'No,' was the
reply, 'this is my gun, — my property.' 'Jump
off and take it, ' says one to another ; upon which
one of the riders dismounted and reached for the
rifle. The Indian stepped back. The white man
sprang forward and seized the rifle, and with the
butt end knocked the Indian down in the door of
the tavern. We screamed and begged the party
not to murder an Indian in the house, or his tribe
would retaliate by murdering the inmates. The
Indian was dragged out and killed and buried
there in the yard, when the party mounted and
made off with his rifle. The day following a
straggling party of the same tribe of Indians —
the Apa(£e-Mohaves — was coming up the road,
soliciting work from the farmers along the route,
as is their custom. When within a mile of the
tavern where the Indian was killed, three farm-
ers, who supposed they were coming to attack
our house, fired into the Indians — about twenty
in number — and wounded and killed several of
them, who were carried off by their associates in
their rapid retreat'
"The killing of the first Indian took place
while the landlord was absent, or he said he
would have prevented it. He had thought it
prudent to send his family by stage to Wicken-
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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 283
burgj but, with the aid of the soldiers and some
nei^bors, he intended remaining, and would
endeavor to pacify the Indians.
"On our arrival at Camp Date Creek, near
midnight, I awoke Captain 0*Beime, the com-
mander, and delivered the orders of General
Crook, arranging for the feeding of the Apache-
Mohaves at his post. I informed him of the
above facts in the hope that he would investigate
"At Culling's Raneho Way Station (Cull-
ing's Well) on the desert, east of Ehrenberg, I
found nearly two hundred and fifty Apadte-
Mohave Indians living in temporary wicki-ups,
and hanging around begging at the ranches. I
called the head men together and inquired why
they did not go to the agency on the Colorado,
or at Date Creek, and what were their means of
obtaining a living. They said that at the Colo-
rado Agency, Iraytabe, the diief, discouraged
their coming, drove them off, and threatened
them with punishment if they returned. At
Date Creek they could get nothing to eat, and 'it
only made the of&cers mad to see them.* Mr.
CuUings fed them occasionally, but they were
half starving and naked. I distributed some
wheat among them and gave them a letter to
Colonel O'Beime at Camp Date Creek, request-
ing him to look into their condition, and if they
belonged to the band which usually reported to
him, to feed them under the President's order.
"At Ehrenberg I met Dr. J. A. Tonner, agent
for the Mohave- Apaches, on the Colorado River,
who reported everything peaceable and pro-
gressing hopefully at his agency. He said he
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2M HISIOBT OF ABIZOHA.
would take care of the InHij^na at Gulling's
ranch, and remonstrate with Iraytabe at his in-
hospitality. He earnestly asks for help in the
establishment of schools, and reported the chil-
dren eager to learn.
"Arriving at Los Angeles on the 13th of Oc-
tober, I regretted that my time would not allow
me the pleasure of calling upon General Stone-
man, at Wilmington, as his position as former
commander of the department of Arizona would
enable him to give me much information on In-
dian affairs. I addressed him a note, however,
and on my arrival at San Francisco, October 19,
I received a very kind reply from the general,
accompanied with a copy of his final report on
"AT SAN FRANCISCO.
"General Schofield was glad to see me. The
many exaggerated reports in the newspapers of
the 'cross-purposes between General Crook and
the peace commissioner, ' had made him desirous
to learn the truth. When he ascertained that
instead of placing the Indiana on the reserva-
tion which I had selected, 'under the care of the
proper officers of the Indian Department,' as 1
had been directed to do in my instructions from
the Secretary of the Interior, I had availed my-
self of the clause which allowed me 'full power
to use my best discretion,' and I had left the
whole business imder the supervision of General
Crook and the officers of the Army, I believe
that he was satisfied that the 'cross-purposes'
only existed in the imagination of a few worthy
people in Arizona, and those whom they have
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THE PEACE COMMISSION. 285
'*I arrived in Waahijigton on October 27th,
and made my verbal report to the President in
the presence of the Secretary of the Interior and
Secretary of War, on the 6th of November. By
direction of the President, on the following day
I made a brief report in writing to Hon. Secre-
tary of the Interior, giving a description of the
reservations selected in New Mexico and Ari-
zona, which was inclosed to the President by the
Secretary of the Interior, with an indorsement
recommending that 'in pursuance of the under-
standing arrived at in our conversation with the
Secretary of War on the ©th instant, that the
President issue an order authorizing said tracts
of country described in Mr. Colyer's letter to be
regarded as reservations for the settlement of the
Indians until otherwise ordered, I have the honor
to suggest that the proper officers of the War
Departanent be directed to notify the various
bands of roving Apaches tiiat they are required
to locate on reservations immediately, and that
upon so doing they will 'be fully protected and
provided for by the Government so long as they
remain on said reservations, and preserve peace-
able relations with the Govemment5^>ne another,
and the white people, and that unless they com-
ply with the request they will not be thus pro-
vided for and protected. '
"These recommendations were approved by
the President, transmitted to the Secretary of
War, and, under General Sherman's orders,
were directed to be earned into execution by
Lieutenant-General Sheridan and Major-GCT-
eral Schofield, commanding the division of the
Missouri and Pacific.
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266 HIBTOBY OF ARIZONA.
"Late advices from the agents and Army offi-
cers in charge of the Apache Indian reservations
established in New Mexico and Arizona, under
the President's order, state that the roving
Apaches have come in in large numbers. There
are now reported to be at Canada Alamosa nine-
teen hundred ; Camp Apache, Arizona Territory,
thirteen hundred; Camp Grant, Arizona Terri-
tory, nine hundred ; Camp Verde, Arizona Terri-
tory, five hundred; Camp McDowell, Arizona
Territory, one hundred — total, four thousand
"No reports have been received at this office
from the feeding stations temporarily estab-
lished until the reservations can be selected^ at
Camp Hualapai and Camp Date Creek, where
tiiere are probably one thousand more. With-
out counting these there are more than one-half
of all the roving Apaches of these Territories
now at peace and within call, reaping the benefit
of the 'peace policy.*
"Of the complaints made by the officials and
editors of Arizona of my want of courtesy in not
accepting tiieir generous hospitalities, as well as
of ttie threats so freely made to 'mob,' 'lynch
me,' 'hang me in effigy,' 'stone me to death,' as a
'thief,' 'robber,' 'murderer,' 'red-handed assas-
sin,' etc., and abuse generally of the press of Ari-
zona and elsewhere, I have taken little notice, as
the business upon which I was sent to Arizona
and New Mexico was successfully accomplished,
has received the approbation of the administra-
tion and I trust to time and the good results
which I believe will follow as my vindication.
"Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
THE PEACE CX)MMIB8I0N. 287
The foregoing letters of Vincent Colyer, which
are embodied in his report to the Secretair of
the Interior, are instructive in many particulars.
They show conclusively the condition of the In-
dians at the time of his visit, and bear out the
statement heretofore made, that the hostiles
were demoi-alized, both in the east and the west.
An unrelenting war had been made upon them,
particularly from 1868 up to this time, 1871,
a period of three years, during which time
the entire Apache country had been surveyed,
mapped and outlined. The waterholes were
known to the whites; the trails were known;
roads had been built through that country, and
forts established in its very heart, so it is not
surprising that the Indians were willing to meet
the Commissioner more than halfway. Many of
them had been gathered around the forts and
were working, employed by the military in chop-
ping wood and furnishing hay, which was paid
for in com, a pint cupfuU at a time. The bucks
cut the wood and hay ; the squaws brought it in
on their backs, and yet the Indians furnished
it at a rate much lower than the contractors had
All through his report it is shown that the In-
dians, even where rations were furnished them,
were half starved, and compelled in many in-
stances to rob, steal, or die. The feeling, of
course, of the whites, at that time, was bitter
against the Indians, because at no time were they
safe outside the settlements, unless in large
bodies, and wherever an adventurous pioneer at-
tempted to establish a home, the Indians came in
and deprived him of his stock and whatever else
he had of value to them.
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266 HIBTOBT OF ARIZONA.
It seems, according to the statements of Col-
yer, which are imquestionably correct, that there
were gathered in over four thousand Indians,
which comprised fully one-half of all the tribes
which had been at war with the whites ; the Coy-
oteros, a great many of them ; tiie most of the
Tontos; many of the Pinalenos; the Apache-
. Mohaves, and the Apache- Yumas. The warring
tribes, those which were still ready to fight to a
finish, were the Chiricahua Apadies under Co-
chise, with a few Mescaleros and Pinalenos; the
Apadie-Mohaves under Del Shay, with a few of
the Tontos, and the Wallapais.
About the time that Colyer was leaving: the
Territory, occurred what is known as the Wlck-
enburg Massacre, which is referred to in his re-
port, a full accoxmt of which is given in the suc-
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THE WICEENBimO MASSAGBE. 289
the wickbnburg massacre.
Stagecoach Attacked by Party of Mounted
Men, Five pAsaENGERS Kjlle3>, Two
Wounded— Difference of Opinion as to
Whether Outrage Committed bt Indians
or Mexicans — Vebdict of Coroner's
Jury — Description of Killed and
Wounded — C. B. Genung's Belief and
Statement — Mtttf, Burn's Ignorance of
What is known as the Loring Massacre oc-
curred on the 5th of November, 1871. On ac-
count of the prominence of some of the victims,
it was commented upon very extensively, not
only in Arizona and California, but iJiroughout
The Wickenburg correspondent of the "Jomv
nal-Miner" gives the following account of the
massacre, the communication being printed in
that paper on November 11th, 1871 :
"At a point about nine miles from Wicken-
burg a party of moxmted men, either Indians or
Mexicans disguised after ih» fashion of Apache
warriors, rushed down upon the stage as it was
passing through a canyon, and fired a volley into
the passengers, k illin g all but two persons, and
slightly wounding these. The wounded, Mr.
Kruger and Miss Sheppard, not being disabled,
immediately sprang from the stage and started
together towards C^ing's Station, while one de-
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290 HIBIOBX OF ABIZONA.
tachment of the bloodthirsty demons surrounded
the stage, and the other went in pursuit of the
fugitives, and kept up a desultory fire, which, be-
ing all mounted, was unsteady, so tiiat only a
slight wound was received by Miss Sheppard,
and neither sustained further injury than the
wounds inflicted by the first fire. The pursuit
was kept up for a distance of nearly half a mile,
the pursuers being kept at bay by Kruger, who
still retained his revolver and fired upon them
whenever they came too near, causing them to
scatter and retreat, but only to rally again to the
pursuit imtil finally they withdrew and joined
their fellows. The fugitives continued on their
way toward Culling's Well Station until they
hailed the eastern bound mail a few miles from
that station. Here they were picked up by the
driver, who retraced his steps to the station, from
which point information of the calamity was sent
to Wiekenburg via the Vulture Mine, the bearer
fearing to proceed by the direct route. The dis-
patch reached Wiekenburg about midnight,
when two parties of citizens started for the
scene ; one of them to bring in the dead bodies,
and the other, under command of George Mun-
roe, to take the trail of the murderers. Upon
reaching the stage a most horrible picture was
presented to their sight. Five men, Messrs. Lor-
ing, Shoholm, Lanz, Hamel, and Salmon, who,
eighteen hours previous left Wiekenburg full of
life and hope in the happy anticipation of &o(hi
again greeting their friends after a prolonged
absence, lay side by side rigid in death and
drenched in blood ; the imavenged acts of a mur-
der as dark and damnable as ever stained the
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THE WICKENBUBG MASSACRE. 291
hands of an assassin. The mystery which sur-
rounds the identity of the murder exists in the
disposition of the mail and haggage. One mail
sack was cut open and its contente scattered over
the ground, the other was left untouched. The
baggage of the passengers was broken open, and
wMle articles of little value were carried away,
large siuns of money and other valuables re-
mained. All this would suggest the work of igno-
rant savages, but as neither the ammimition nor
animals had been removed, some are of the opin-
ion that the outrage was perpetrated by a band
of Mexican bandits from Sonera. Mr. Kruger,
who has really had the best opportunity of de-
ciding this question, states positively that they
were Indians, but at all events the next mail may
bring reports which will place the guilt of this
terrible crime where it properly belongs, when
we hope it will not be left to the local autiiorities
to redress the wrong or avenge an outrage
against the Government and ^eir people at
^e passengers on this coach when leaving
Wickenburg, were in high spirits, anticipating
no danger whatever along the route. Their arms
were stored beneath the cushions of the seats for
convenience and safety. AH were in high glee,
anticipating soon a reunion with their friends
and families. Miss Sheppard and Mr. Kruger,
and three others sat on the inside of the coach.
Toimg Loring rode on the outside in company
with the driver. The first notification of danger
was at a point about nine miles from "Wicken-
burg when the^ were startied by the voice of
the driver, calling out: "Apaches I Apaches! I"
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292 HlSrOBT OF ABIZONA.
Scarcely was the alarm given when a volley was
discharged from the rifles of the savages into the
stage coach, succeeded almost instantly by a sec-
ond volley. The driver and two paasenger&were
killed outriglit at the first fire, and the remaining
four passengers, with one exception, were
wounded. "At ttiat time," says J. M. Barney,
"the survivors were Miss Sheppard and Messrs.
Hamel, Kruger and Loring. The last named had
thus far escaped uninjured. As the Indians
were rushing upon the stage, after firing the first
volley, Miss Sheppard and Mr. Kruger sprang
to the groimd at the side opposite to that from
which tiieir assailants were approaching, and es-
caped with their lives. Unfortunately for
Messrs. Loring and Hamel, in the excitement of
the moment, l^ey lost aU presence of mind and
jumped from the stage at the side occupied by
"The former, being unarmed, could ofEer no
resistance, and so endeavored to escape by flight.
This effort, however, was hopeless. He soon
foimd himself in the center of a group of savages,
and there fell, pierced by two bullets and dis-
patched by a lance thrust in the breast. Mr.
Hamel was killed at about the same instant, and
those who were best acquainted with the Indian
customs believed that he must have fought
bravely for his life, as he was the only member of
the party who was scalped — ^it having been custo-
mary among the savages to disfigure in such a
manner only the bodies of those who fell while
fighting courageously to defend their lives.
"The trailing party (imder George Munroe)
then returned to Wickenburg, where Captain
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THE WICEENBUBG MABSACRB. 293
MeinLoldt and some soldiers were met. Some of
the citizens then joined Captain Meinholdt's
party, and, returning to the scene of tiie attack,
again picked up the trail of the murderers and
followed it until both citizens and soldiers be-
came thoroughly satisfied that the authors of the
deed had gone on to the Camp Date Oreek Reser-
"It was apparent to the relief party that while
awaiting the approach of the stage coach, the
savages had been secreted near the roadside, be-
hind piles of grass and shrubbery, which they
had collected and arranged in a manner not to
attract attention, placing the bundles in an up-
right position to give l£em the appearance of
clumps of shrubbery produced by the natural
process of growth. These hiding places ex-
tended parallel to the road for some distance and,
it was evident that, when the stage had reached a
point about the middle of the ambush line, it was
raked by the fire of the assassins in three direc-
tions — in front, in rear, and directly opposite the
"At a late hour on Monday night, the bodies of
the victims were brought into Wiekenburg, and,
on the following day, the inquest was held, the
following being a copy of the verdict rendered :
*' *We, the undersigned, summoned as a jury
to hold an inquest on the bodies of the following
named persons, found murdered in the stage
coach, about six miles from the town of Wieken-
burg, on the La Pas road, on the morning of the
5tii of November, 1871, from all the evidence ob-
tained from the two surviving passengera, do find
that C. S. Adams, John Lanz, Fred W. Loring,
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294 HISTOBY OF ABIZONA.
Pred W. Shoholm, W. G. Salmon and P. M.
Hamel, (found scalped), came to their death by
gunshot wounds, received at the bands of Indians
trailed towards the Date Creek Keservation.
*' 'F. Purcella, Julius A. Goldwater,
David Morgan, W. W. Weber,
Aaron Bamett, Dennis May,
CSiarles H. Richardson Charles Barbour,
Mack Morris, Foreman.'
"The survivors, Kruger and Miss Sheppard,
were confident that the murderers were Apacbe-
Mohaves from the Camp Date Creek Reserva-
tion. They had on the blue pants worn by the
Reservation Indians and had the gait, appear-
ance and bearing of Apaches during ^e whole
time they were under observation. In addition to
this, Oaptain Meinholdt, of the 3d Cavalry, who
had been detailed to find out, if possible, who
they were, followed the tracks in the direction of
Camp Date Creek. The footprints were round
toed, after the manner of the Apadies. On the
trail a reservation hunting bag was picked up,
and a pack of cards, with the comers cut off, audi
as were used by the Apache-Mohaves. He de-
clared in his report to his superior that it was his
firm conviction that the murderers were Camp
Date Creek Apaches. Furthermore, subsequent
to the committal of the murder, two of the Reser-
vation Indians died of gunshot wounds, but
whites were not permitted to see them.
"The suspicion that had at first been expressed
by a few — ^that the crime might have been com-
mitted by Mexican bandits — furnished sufficient
grounds for the starting of such a rumor.
Thereupon, interested, so-called friends of the
THE WICKENBTJRO MAiSSACfiB. 295
Indians, here and elsewhere, seized upon this
flaw in some people's judgment for the purpose
of making capital out of it, but a number of well-
known Wi<^enburg citizens, who had examined
and buried the bodies, as well as followed the
trail of the murderers, published over their sig-
natures a letter containing the best of proofs
and reasons for asserting that Indians bad com-
mitted the deed. The letter was as follows :
" 'Wiekenburg, November 12th, 1871.
" 'Editor of the 'Miner' ; In looking over the
last issue of your paper, Nov. 11th, and a report
giving details concerning the late tragedy which
occurred near our place, we wish to correct one
error — the murderers were not mounted on
horses, but were all on foot, and wearing the
Apache mocassins, leaving on their trail many
Indian articles, (among others, bone dust used
by the Indians as a medicine), which were
brought in by George Munroe. As the affair is a
serious one and imprecedentedly bold, our citi-
zens, wishing to have the blame attached to none
but the guilty ones, have spared no trouble or ex-
pense in thoroughly satisfying themselves as to
the identity of the murderers.
*' 'As soon in the morning as it became light
enough to see a footprint, a party of our citizens
was on the spot, and took the trail. Judging
from the indications, after killing the passen-
gers, something scared the Indians, causing them
to leave in hot haste, scattering in different di-
rections. After following up their different
trails a distance of four or five miles, they all
united, forming one large trail and leading
toward the Date Creek Reservation. The trail
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296 HlffrOBT OF ARIZONA.
showed them to 1)6 a large party of Indians, some
forty or fifty in number. It was useless for the
few citizens then on the trail to follow them far-
ther, the Indians having some twenty hours the
'* 'They returned to Wickenburg, where tiiey
met <!)aptain Meinholdt, with a detachment of
troops from Camp Date Creek, and orders to use
all efforts to find out who the murderers were.
Thereupon Mr. Munroe and Mr. Frink immedi-
ately returned with Captain Meinholdt and his
command, again took up the trail, and followed it
mitil citizens and soldiers were all thoroughly
satisfied that the perpetrators of the horrible
deed were Indians.
" 'We, being of the scouting party, subscribe
to the above as being a true report, having been
the first upon the ground after the massacre and
of the last to leave the trail.
" 'W. J. Barclay* George Munroe,
Edward Prentus, George Bryan,
Jose Maria Saltdlo. '
"The public mind, however, continued to be
divided, certain interests harping upon the mat-
ter tmtil they succeeded in schooling a portion of
the Eastern public into the belief that white Ari-
zonans had committed the crime for the sake of
plundering the passengers and to make sure of
the continuance of the war with the Apaches.
These were, of course, base slanders and through
the untiring efforts of General Crook were later
disproved and the guilt fastened — beyond any
reasonable doubt — upon Apache-Mohave In-
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THE WICEENBUBO MAS8A0BB. 297
"The best known and most prominent victim
of this deplorable tragedy was Fred W. Loring,
who was twenty-two years of age and a native of
Boston, Massachusetts. He had graduated from
Harvard in 1870, and immediately ei^aged in
the business of journalism in bis native city.
Early in 1871 he had joined the 'Wheeler Expe-
dition,' which he accompanied throughout all its
rambles, finally reaching Prescott on his way
home. Although a boy in years, Mr. Loring was
a mature man in mind, whose name had already
become familiar throughout the nation as an au-
thor and 'contributor' of rare merit. His un-
timely death created a great sensation in the
East, and at once the press of New York and
New England wheeled into line, and concluded
that 'the Apache must be treated with less Bible,
and more sword. '
"Messrs. Hamel and Salmon were likewise
members of the 'Wheeler Expedition.' Both
gentlemen were residents of San Francisco,
where the latter left a wife and two small chil-
dren who were dependent upon his efforts for
"Mr. Shoholm was on his way to his home in
Philadelphia after an absence of many years,
part of which time he had been a member of the
firm of Jewell & Co., of Prescott
"O. S. Adams had a wife and three small chil-
dren in San Pranciseo and was on his way to
join them when overtaken by death. For ten
months preceding his departure from Prescott,
he had been in charge of the flour depot of
W. Bichard & Co., at tiiat place.
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296 HISTORY OF ABIZONA.
"John Lanz, the driver, who was better known
as 'Dutch John,' came from San Bernardino,
California, about four weeks before his death,
and had obtained a. situation as driver on the
Ehrenberg-Wickenburg stage, the fatal trip be-
ing his second one over the route, and the first
one from the Wickenburg end of the line.
"Miss Sbeppard, who had been quite seriously
wounded in the attack, was later taken to Camp
Date Creek for medical attention, going from
there to Southern California in company with
Mr. Kruger. Not many years later Kruger re-
ported her death in that State from the effects of
the wounds she had received, which left him as
the last survivor of the most atrocious killing of
whites by savages in Arizona."
Miss Sheppard was a member of the demi-
monde, a beautiful woman who dressed in
the height of extreme fashion ; adventurous, as
is fully demonstrated by her being in Arizona at
this time, and said to be quite fascinating, whose
charms found si ready market. She was kind
and generous, dividing with the unfortimate,
nursing the sick with motherly care ; she had a
warm place in the hearts of her male acquaint-
At first, aa before stated, this was supposed to
have been the work of Mexicans, disguised as In-
dians. C- B. Genung, to the day of his death,
believed that Mexicans committed this atrocity,
and makes the following statement in regard to
'*1d the fall of 1871 a man named J. M. Bryan,
commonly called 'Crete' by his acquaintances,
had the contract to haul government freight
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TEE WIGKENBUBO MASSACRE. 299
from Ehrenberg, on the Colorado Eiver, to Ft.
Whipple, Camps Wood, Verde, Apache, and Ft.
McDowell. His business called him to different
posts and he generally travelled by stf^ from
one post to another. When there was no stage
route he generally used a saddle horse or mule, of
which he had several good ones. Bryan had an
acquaintance with whom he generally took his
meals when in Wickenburg, which was a central
point for his teams. One day Donna Tomase, as
the woman was called, (she was a California
Spaniard. Her right name was Mrs. Boims),
called Bryan into her house, and told him not to
ride in the Wickenburg and Ehrenberg stage any
more. When questioned she told him that there
was a plan laid to rob tiie stage ; that she had
overheard some Mexicans talking in a brush
shaek behind a saloon nearby where she lived,
and cautioned him again about going by stage.
He took the advice and did his traveUing in "Uie
saddle from that on. It was not long before the
woman's story was confirmed. The stage left
Prescott at night on account of Indians, arriv-
ing at Wickenburg before daylight on the fol-
lowing moming. * * * At a point about
nine miles from Wickenburg toward Ehrenberg,
the road crossed a small sfmdwaah which had
scrub oak brush growing on either side. In this
wash, hidden by the banks and brush, lay the
Mexicans. When the stage was well into the
wash, the horses were stopped and the stage
riddled with bullets. • • •
"Of course this was supposed by most people
to be the work of the Indians, quite a niunber of
whom were at that time at Camp Date Creek
300 HISrORT OF ARIZONA.
about twenty-five miles northwest of Wicken-
burg. The Mexicans had worn moccasins and
scalped Adams in order to mislead the public
At tiie time I was working from twenty-five to
thirty of the Date Creek ladians, gathering my
crop of com, beans and potatoes on my ranch in
Peeples Valley, twenty-seven miles north of
Wi<;^enburg, and I had some men among them
that I knew I could trust. As soon as I heard
the newB I sent two Indians across to Date Creek
to learn if these Indians knew anything about
the matter. They returned the same day and
assured me their people knew nothing about the
massacre, but that it must be Tonto Apaches
from the eastern country.
*' In a very few days Bryan came by my place,
on his way from Wickenburg to Prescott, and
told me the story. Among this baud of fifteen
Mexicans was one who Mrs. Bouns was slightly
acquainted with, and whom she called Parenta;
his name being the same as her family name.
She got him into her house, filled him up with
wine and he told her the whole story ; how these
men had all stayed at a house out on the road a
little west of the town the night before the mas-
sacre, and went out to the place before daybreak.
The place had been picked out some days before.
This young Mexican claimed that he was sick
that night and did not accompany the crowd that
did the work, but told of Adams shooting one of
the party ; that they had taken the wounded man
to the Agua CaUente springs on the Gila Biver to
get well. The <^cers went from Phoenix and
got the fellow with the hole in his shoulder,
brought him to Phoenix, and he was killed in
THE WICKENBTJBG MA88A0BE. 301
the jail by a man who still lives in Phoenix.
John Burger killed one of them in a corral at
the lower station on the Agua Fria near where
the S. F. P. & P. E. crosses that stream. The
ringleader, a redheaded native of Gibraltar,
named Joaquin Barbe, with another of the band,
got on the warpath and run amuck in Phoenix,
and Joe Fye and Milt Ward, deputy sheriffs,
chased them out of town and killed bolii of them,
and they all got what was coming to them, but
one. He got wise and left the country. Bryan
was very careful who he told the story to, and it
was passed among the right men to attend to
such matters. The scalping of Adams was all
right to fool a tenderfoot,-but we oldtimers knew
that Apaches never scalped, although they fre-
quently mutilated otherwise."
If this massacre had been committed by In-
dians, it ia strange that Mike Bums knows noth-
ing of it, because he has been collecting Indian
history and Indian stories, and recording them
carefully, no matter whether to the credit of his
race or not, and if the Indians had been the cul-
prits, some of the Indians, the Yavapais or
Apache-Mohaves, with whom he has been asso-
ciated since his early youth and manhood, would
certainly have given him an accoimt of it On
the contrary he professes to know nothing of this
massacre, and never heard of way attempt to as-
sassinate General Crook, although he says this
might have happened and he never know of it ;
so I give all the evidence tending to show that it
was committed by the Indians, and also the evi-
dence of Mr. Genung going to show that it was
committed by Mexicans. It will always remain
302 HISrOBT OF ARIZONA.
a mystery as to who were really the murderers.
General Crook, as we shall see, at first believed
that it was committed by the Indians, and, ac-
cording to Captain Bourke, spent a long time in
ferreting out the perpetrators, but from the fact
that a month later, or thereabouts, he employed,
these same Indians, whom he tried to capture or
kill at Date Creek, as scouts to run down the
renegade Apaches, it would seem that he might
have changed his mind^ although there is no rec-
ord of that extant.
id By Google
THE WIOEENBUBO MASSACRE. 3C6
THE WICKENBURG MASSACRE (Continned) .
GfiNEaiAL Crook Takes Up Hunt for Murderehis
— iNVESnOATION STOPPED BY PeACE COM-
MISSION — Investigation by General Crook
Resumed — Meeting With Indians at
Camp Date Creek — Selection op Murder-
ers BY Mohave Indians — Attempted Ab-
BEST Brings on Fight — C. B. Genttng's
Account op Happening — Captain John G.
Bouhke's Account of Attempt on Gen-
eral Crook's Lite — ^Death and Burial op
Captain Philip Dwtee — Fight With
William Gilson, at that time a prominent
citizen of Date Creek, and afterwards one of the
early settlers of the Salt River Valley, during
the latter part of January, 1872, informed Gen-
eral Crook that he believed the Date Creek
Indians coDunitted the Wickenbnrg Massacre.
Mr. Gilson was friendly to these Indians, and
this opinion was given only upon well groimded
suspicions. General Crook took the -matter in
hand, determined to ferret out the murderers,
arrest them, and turn them over to the civil au-
thorities for trial. He set spies, both Indians
and whites, at work to himt up the testimony,
plenty of which was soon after forthcoming,
and what was at first a mystery, was soon
cleared up by a strong chain of evidence. First
came an Apache-Mohave Indian boy, who had
been raised by Dan CLeary, the well-known
304 BISrOBT OF ARIZONA.
scout, whom the robbers and murderers had sent
for that he might tell them the denominations of
the greenbacks which they had secured at the
time of the massacre. Some of these green-
backs had been left by the Indians, they not
knowing their value. Next came Irataba, chief
of the Mohave Indians, and one or two of his
captains, and several of his warriors, who testi-
fied that the murderers, after going to Date
Creek, went upon the Colorado River Indian
Reservation, and boasted of the deed they had
done, spent their stolen greenbacks and dis-
played other plunder. These actions were
brought to the notice of other white men besides
General Crook, among whom were Dr. Tonner,
then Indian Agent at the Colorado River Reser-
vation, who assisted in procuring these facts.
Wallapai Indians also substantiated the ac-
counts given by Irataba and his friends. The
murderers repeatedly stated that fifteen of their
number had made the attack, while fifteen more
were within hailing distance ready to give aid;
that they had taken very little clothing, trinkets,
or articles of tbat nature, for fear that their pos-
session might some day lead to their detection.
Continuing, J. M. Barney says : "In March of
1872, General Crook, accompanied by Lieuten-
ants Bourke and Ross, started from Fort
Whipple, along the Mohave road, towards the
Colorado River. He reached Beale Springs
where he succeeded in getting some Wallapai
Indians to agree to go out and help him per-
suade the Apache-Mohaves to come into Camp
Date Creek, where they were to be fed and taken
care of by the Government. This was merely a
THE WICKENBima MAS8A.CBE. 305
ruae upon the part of General Gto<^ whose main
object was to get hold of the robbers and mur-
derers belonging to that tribe, and, knowing that
the two tribes — the Apache-Mohaves and Walla-
pals — were more or less friendly, realized at
once that it would not do to trust the latter with
the real secret of the expedition. General
Crook, with his two lieutenants and Wallapai
Indian allies, trudged on foot through snow and
slush towards a rendezvous, where, by previous
arrangement, two companies of cavalry were to
go imder the guidance of Dan O'Leary and some
Wallapai scouts for the purpose of taking in
hand ttie murderous Apaehe-Mohaves. Just at
tbis time an express came to General Crook with
orders to cease hostilities and to let the Indians
and 'Peace Commissioners' — who were about to
arrive in Arizona — settle the question. General
Crook obeyed the orders and returned to Fort
Whipple. Later on in that same year — about
the month of August — having been granted au-
thority to chastise bad Indians, General Crook,
vrith Lieutenant Ross, Henry Hewitt, and a few
other persons, soon after started for Camp Date
Creek to carry out his old object of arresting
the murderers who had taken part in the Wick-
enburg Massacre. Before leaving his headquar-
ters the General had sent couriers to the Apache-
Mohaves and Apache-Tumas, asking them to
meet him in conference at Date Creek, which
they agreed to do.
"The General and his party reached the post
on the 7th of September, but foimd that no
Indians had yet come in to meet him, as had been
id By Google
306 HlffrOBT OP ARIZONA.
promised. The following day, however, some
fifty Indians, led by their Chief, Ochocama,
made their appearance, armed and painted, and
apparently ready for war. In the meantime Dr.
Herman Bendell, Superintendent of Indian
Affairs for Arizona, and Col. James M. Barney,
of Ehrenberg and Yuma, had arrived from the
Colorado River; Captain Byrne, D. H. Smith,
Irataba, the Mohave chieftain, Irataba's son,
and another Mohave Indian, had come in fr<an
Camp Beale Springs ; while Charley B. Genung,
William Gilson, and other citizens from the
neighboring valleys were also present It was
then arranged by General Crook that the Mo-
haves should be kept out of sight of the
Apache-Mohaves until everything should be
ready for arresting the murderers. The time
for the council came and the parties to the con-
ference assembled on the parade ground adja-
cent to the post. Three or four of fiie stage rob-
bers were present among the erowd of Indians,
while one, known as 'Chimihueva Jim' — a very
bad Indian, who spoke English quite well —
could not be induced under any circumstances
to come to the post, but remained in the nearby
mountains. Cteneral Crook, together with the
other citizens mentioned above, as well as Lieu-
tenant Volkmar, who commanded the post, were
seated on benches opposite Chief Ochocama and
his braves, when Chief Irataba and his Mohave
followers made their appearance and shook
hands with their red brethren. There being but
about fifty Apache-Mohaves present, General
Crook asked for information regarding the five
or six himdred Apache-Mohaves and Apache-
COL. JAMES M. BARNEY.
Digitized By Google
id By Google
THE WICKENBTTBO MASSACBE. 307
Tumas, who, a short time previously, had drawn
rations at tiie post. He could gain but little
knowledge about this matter from Chief Oeho-
cama, whose brother was, at the time, a prisoner
in the guardhouse for having attempted to
smuggle arms from the post, and for having dis-
obeyed an order of Dr. Williams then Indian
agent at Date Creek.
"It had previously been understood by the
white citizens and Mohaves that one of the lat-
ter was to hand to each one of the murderers of
the stage passengers, a piece of tobacco. One of
the Mohaves immediately proceeded to carry out
tiiis part of the program, offering the first piece
to the chief, Ochocama, who himg his head and
did not let on that he understood what the Mo-
have meant. He was finally persuaded to take
hold of the tobacco, while his coimtenance
rapidly changed from one blue color to another,
his discomfiture ending by droppii^ his piece
of tobacco to the ground as soon as he could.
Another and another Indian was given his piece
of tobacco, and the last murderer had just
clutched his when, agreeably to previous under-
standing, a soldier attempted to arrest him.
Quick as thought, another sav^e stabbed the
soldier with a kmfe. The soldier pulled his
pistol and shot. General Crook rushed in and
tried to stop the fracas, but it was too late, as
the Indians and soldiers were cross-firing upon
one another. Three soldiers caught hold of the
chief, Ochocama, who would have gotten away
from all three had it not been for Dan O'Leary
who, winding his fingers in the chief's long hair,
threw and seciired him, whence he was led to the
306 HI8T0RX OF ARIZONA.
guardhouse. During the disturbance Ocho-
cama's brother who, as has been stated, was a
prisoner in the guardhouse, made two attempts
to escape through the roof and was shot by a
guard. Lieutenant Ross, observing an Inifian
taking a deadly aim at General Crook, pushed
that officer out of range of the gun just in time,
the bullet that was intended for him hitting and
killing an Indian. Most of the Indians ran
away when the firing commenced, but the chief
and those who had to remain fought like demons.
The bloody ending of this gathering, although
regrettable, was inevitable, as the Indians would
have resisted arrest under any circumstances.
Ochocama, the chief, did not much relish his in-
(tarceration in the guardhouse, and finally made
liis escape through the roof, when he was shot
at twice, pierced with a bayonet once but even-
tually succeeded in getting away to the hills,
where, according to the story of some Apache-
Yumas, who later came into Mr. Gilson's place,
he died of his woxmds. This chief was one of
the worst Indians infesting the Territory at that
time, and, according to his own confession, had
murdered Mr. Leihy and Mr. Evarts in Bell's
Canyon, on November 10th, 1866, for no other
]-eason than that he had been told IJiat Mr. Leihy
had stolen some goods intended for his tribe.
Mr. Leihy was Superintendent of Indian Affairs
at the time, having succeeded Charles D. Poston
in that position, and Mr. Evarts was his clerk.
His murderers tried to lay the blame of the
<;rime on the Pimas, just as they afterwards en-
deavored to make the Tonto Apaches shoulder
all their other evil deeds. This treacherous
THE WIOKENBUBO MAaSACBE. 309
chief and his brotiier had also murdered a man
by the name of Taylor on the Colorado River,
in August of 1869.
"After the row Mr. Gilson went back to his
ranch and stayed there alone, while Mr. Genung,
having Indians working for him on the tooA.
over the Antelope Mountains, was furnished
with a small escort of soldiers, went home, and
told his Indians what had taken place. Upon
receiving this information they all left.
"Some seven Apache-Mohaves, including the
chief, Ochocama, who died of his wounds, and his
brother, were killed in this fight, while no doubt
many othera were wounded. Many more would
have been killed but for the earnest efforts of
General Crook and Dr. Bendell to put a stop to
the firing. The soldier who was stabbed by the
savage who commenced the trouble had been
severely wounded and soon after passed away."
Mr. Gemmg's account of the attempt of Gen-
eral Crook to capture or kill these Indians who
were supposed to be the murderers, follows :
"In tfuly, 1871, 1 concluded to build a wagon
road from Wickenburg, via Antelope Creek and
Peeples Valley to connect with the road leading
from the Colorado River at Ehrenberg to Pres-
cott. There was a road that could be travelled
by light rigs and empty teams but no load could
be handled over it. My neighbors agreed to
help me, as Wickenburg and Phoenix were our
best markets and to haul a load to either of these
places we had to travel about sixty mUes,
whereas it was only twenty-seven miles by the
road that I proposed to build from Peeples Val-
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310 HlffrOBY OF ARIZONA.
ley to Wickenburg which was on the Phoenix
road. I employed a few white men at $75.00 per
month, a few Mexicans at $65.00 and board, and
started to work. There was quite a number of
Yavapai Indians in and aroxmd Peeples Valley
at the time, and when they learned what I was
doing they asked for work; and, as they were
willing to work for fifty cents per day, the same
as I had paid them when they worked for me on
the Colorado River Reservation, I put a lot of
them to work. My neighbors did not approve
of my working Indians, but, as the Iiidians
would do about as much work with pick and
shovel as the average white man or Mexican, I
put them on ; gave them flour, beans, sugar, and
coffee and venison. I gave one of the Indians
fifty cents per day and furnished bim with car-
tridges, and he kept the camps well supplied
with fresh meat and his squaw dressed the skins,
which made it a good job for the hunter. I
thought it better to work the Indians and have
them where I could watch ^em, than to be \m-
certain of their whereabouts. Then again, the
white man had occupied their lands and hunting
grounds, crowded them back so that they were
too glad to go onto the reservation. Then after
they were all on the reservation the agent
starved them until they had to go back to the
mountains to get somethin g to eat.
"I built the road from Wickenburg to Kirk-
land Valley for $4765, and without tiie Indian
labor I could not have built it for less than seven
or eight thousand dollars.
"When I started work on the road a man
named George H. Wilson, commonly called
THE WIOKEKBUBG MASSACRE. 311
Tackey Wilson, moved from his ranch three and
a half miles below Wickenburg up to Antelope
Greek and put up a seven room house and
started a station. Wilson was a good station
keeper and did a good business with the placer
miners as well as with the travel that came that
way as soon as the road was possible for teams.
While I was working on the road I received one
day a letter from General Crook who had been
at Fort Whipple but a short time ; he having ar-
rived in the Territory in June of the same year.
In the letter Crook asked me if I could go with
some of the head men of the Yavapais and see
him at Whipple. I wrote to Crook that I would
try to locate some of the captains and go with
them as soon as I could. Crook did not tell me
in his letter what he wanted, but from the talk
that I had with the three soldiers that brought
me the letter, I inferred that he wanted to enlist
some of the Yavapais to help fight the Hualapais
and Tonto Apaches. I sent an Indian to Camp
Date Creek to talk with some of the Indians
which I supposed were there, but my Indian re-
turned that night and told me that nearly all the
Indians had gone out into the mountains and
only came into the post once a week to draw ra-
ti<His. The doctor at the post had advised this
move as the Indians were having chills and fever
at their camp near the post. As I was very busy
I concluded to take one Indian and go and see
Crook, knowing that I could induce the Indians
to do anything that I thought was for their good.
The next day I took an Indian that I knew well,
and with two white men drove to Prescott. It
took five days the way the road ran at that time
312 HranHtT of abizona.
to make the trip — two to go and two to come,
and one day in town. I went to see Crook and
took my friend, Herbert Bowers, who was post
trader at the tiine, to introduce me, and my In-
dian, Tom. I found Crook much different from
other commanding officers that I had met in
Arizona. He was more like a pioneer miner or
prospector to meet — ^just a common plain gentle-
man. He told me that Mr. Bowers had told him
of my efforts to get the other commanders to em-
ploy the Tavapais as scouts and trailers, and
asked me if the Indians would like to do it. I
assured him that he could enlist every Yavapai
that was able to go. He then asked me how long
it would take to get the Indians together so that
he could have a talk with them at Date Creek.
I told him that a week would give them plenty of
time. That was a good talk for me, for I had
been trying for several years to do just what
Crook had proposed, but there never was a man
in command before that who had sense enoi^h
to do it. When I told Tom what Crook wanted,
he was highly elated.
' ' On my return to my ranch I killed an Indian
in Kirkland Valley by Tom's advice, and when
Tom knew he was dead he said General Crook
had commenced to kill Tontos, which was true,
for if Crook had not sent for me when he did, I
should not have found the Indian at the station
in Kirkland Valley.
"It was more than a month before I heard
from Crook again. Then he wrote me asking
me if I could get the Indians in to Date Creek
by a certain day. I wrote and told him that I
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THE WICKENBTTBG MASSAdtB. 313
could get all of the ablebodied men in by the ap-
pointed time. This correspondence was done by
"I had a young Indian captain named Waw
ba Yuma, working for me, and most of the
twenty-five working Indians that I had were of
his band. I told him that General Crook
wanted all the strong young men of his tribe to
go with the soldiers and fight the Tontos. The
Indian said to me : 'Tou tell General Crook that,
when I am done work here I will go and so will
all of my young men.' I said to Mm, 'You had
better go and see the General and tell him your-
self.' *You can talk for me and for my people,'
said Waw ba Yuma. I sent out Indian runners
and had all of the young men of the tribe at Date
Creek on the appointed day. I met General
Crook there and we called the meeting in front
of the officers* quarters on the south side of the
parade groxmd. I was a little surprised to meet
Irataba, the head chief of the Mohaves there,
but thought nothing of it at the time. The
white men were seated with backs against the
buildings, Irataba just in front of us and the
Yavapais sitting on the benches and standing
before us. Crook had brought a man named
Charles Spencer from Mohave County to in-
terpret for him. Spencer had done a little talk-
ing for Crook when Irataba got up and began
to pass pieces of tobacco to some of the Indians,
and in a few seconds had passed out eight or ten
pieces, when some soldiers who had been stand-
ii^ among the Indians began to grab the ones to
whicHQ the tobacco had be^i given, at the same
time drawing their revolvers. The Indians, be-
314 HIOTORT OF ARIZONA.
ing surprised and scared, struggled desperately
and several of the arrested ones escaped; the
soldiers began shooting, and those that had no
revolvers ran to their quarters and got their
rifles and began shooting at every Indian that
they could see. Crook, myself and Col. Jas. M.
Barney were the only ones present who did not
take an active part in some way in the fracas.
We just stood by and looked on. The Indians
had left their gims at their camp with the women
and children and some of the soldiers ran to the
camp which was about one half mile from the
post, and secured all the guns and bows.
"When I realized what had been done I went
and got my arms and hunted up Crook and
asked ^jm what he meant by inducing me to get
the Indians into the post under pretense of
friendship and then killing a lot of them — eight
I believe were found. He said that Irataba had
told the agent at the Colorado Reservation that
the Tavapais had murdered the Loring party, a
short time before, while en route by stage from
Wickenburg to Ehrenbei^, and that the pieces
of tobacco were handed to the ones that Irataba
had learned were of the party who attacked the
stage and killed seven people. I told Crook
that it was a lie; that I knew it was Mexicans
who had done the killing and robbing of the
stage. I was getting madder every minute and
told Crook that if anything happened to my
family through this treachery that I should hold
him personally responsible ; that I was living in
the midst of the Indians and that I could expect
nothing but that they would blame me for all the
trouble. He said in reply to my talk that he
THE WICKENBUBG MASSACRE. 315
would see that I had protection. I mounted my
horae and rode as fast as I could to the camp on
the road. I told the Indians what had hap-
pened and told them that I could not keep them
at work any longer and that they must go into
the mountains and stay until I made a signal
smoke at a certain high place on my ranch.
Waw ba Yuma did not like the idea of going but
I made him understand that all the people would
be afraid and that I should have to stop work
anyhow until I had a chance to see and talk to
all the Yavapais.
"It was nearly a month later when Lieut.
Trout, the quartermaster at Camp Date Creek,
Frank Murray, the butcher at the post, and a
soldier came to my ranch about noon. Trout
asked me if I had seen any Indians since they
left my camp, which I had not, nor had there
been one serai at or near the post. He said he
wanted to get them back, if possible. I went out
to the place agreed upon and raised a big black
smoke. In a very short time my friend Tom,
his squaw, and one more Indian came to the
ranch. I told Tom what Trout said and told
him that Trout would issue rations to all who
went for them. I had a lot of talking to do and
told the Indians that they could come and camp
near my house if they wanted to. Tom asked
me what all the soldiers were doing there. Crook
having sent a company of cavalry to my ranch
as soon as he could get them there after the af-
fair at Date Creek. I explained the matter as
well as I could, and after Trout and hie party
had left I had a lot of talk and explained the
matter, placing all of the blame on Irataba,
316 HISTORY OF ARIZONA.
and he was the one to blame for tiie whole
trouble. Irataba was jealous because the Yava-
pais were getting better treatment from the offi-
cers at Date Creek than his people were receiv-
ing from the Indian Department, hence the
"I had to do a lot of talking to get the Indians
to go back to Date Creek to meet Crook tiie sec-
ond time, he having promised to return their
guns and other things that the soldiers had taken
from their camp. Finally I told them that if
they would come and meet Crook that I would
be there and see that they got their guns and
that I would be right beside Crook, and if the
soldiers tried to bottler them that I would have
my pistol in my belt and would shoot Crook
three times. A few, those who had lost their
guns, went in to the post on the appointed day.
I was there and told Crook that we would do omf
business with the Indians in front of the sutler's
store instead of going onto the parade ground as
on the other occasion. There were no seats pro-
vided but Crook had ordered all the stolen
property to be brought out and placed on the
ground near where we stood. I told the In-
dian, Tom, to get his gun. When he picked it
up and examined it, I asked him if it was all
right. His reply was 'Kely-eppy,' meaning 'no
good. * I told another one to go get his gun, and
tiiat was 'kely-eppy' also. I showed Crook that
there had been screws taken out of the locks.
He at once ordered the commander of the post
to bring out some guns that were there and
twenty rounds of ammunition for each gun.
They were turned over to those who had lost
I'HE WICKENBUBQ MA8SA0RE. 317
their guns without any ceremony. When the
old guns that the soldiers had taken were exam-
ined, it was found that there was not one but
what had been ruined for the use of the Indians.
If a screw was taken out the Indian had no pos-
sible means of replacing it. Twenty rounds of
unmunition was a great prize. The only way
that an Indian could get ammunition was to go
to La Pas or Yuma and get some white man to
buy it for him. That act restored confidence in
General Crook. He enlisted a lot of these In-
dians, agreeii^ to take care of all who were left
in camp, i. e., the women, children and old men.
The first thing he did with the new soldiers was
to go out and thradi the Hualapais; then en-
listed some Hualapais to help clean up the In-
dians of the country east of Preacott."
Again quoting from J. M. Barney :
"From Camp Bate Creek Geneml Crook re-
turned to Fort Whipple and had been there but
a short time when a dispatch from Dr. Williams
was received hy him, in which he was informed
that Jemaspie, chief of the Apache- Yumas, with
about a hundred of his people, had returned to
the reservation and expressed a desire for peace.
"General Crook immediately returned to Date
Creek and foimd upon arriving there that the
Indians were not then prepared to talk, owing
to the fact that the wife of one of the principal
chiefs was sick. On the morning of the third
day after his arrival, however, a council was
held at which these Indians agreed to practically
all the conditions imposed by the General — ^to
stay upon the reserve ; to report the fact to tiieir
318 HI8T0RT OP ABIZONA.
agent whenever any bad Indian came among
them ; to help the white citizens chastise hostile
Indians whenever called upon to do so; and,
lastly, to aid the authorities in bringing to jus-
tice those Indians who had murdered tfxe stage
' ' This being all the General desired the
Apache-Tumaa to do, he promised, on the part
of the Government, to do everything necessary
for their welfare as long as they lived up to this
"Having also heard that they intended to take
the life of the friendly Mohave chief, Irataba,
for having betrayed the Apaehe-Mohaves, he
warned them not to do so, explaining at the same
time that Irataba was not the first person who
had given information about the murderers.
' ' General Crook then returned to Fort
Whipple and commenced immediate prepara-
tions for extensive operations against the
Apache-Mohaves and other hostile tribes, which
were later carried out with encouraging success. **
Captain John G. Bourke, in "On the Border
with Crook," gives the following account of the
attempt upon General Crook's life, which is sub-
stantially the same as the foregoing :
"Sixty-two miles from Prescott to the south-
west lay the sickly and dismal post of Camp
I>ate Creek, on the creek of the same name.
Here were congregated about one thousand of
the band known as the Apache-Tumas, with a
sprinkling of Apache-Mohaves, tribes allied to
the Mohaves on tiie Colorado, and to the Huala-
pais, but differing from them in disposition, as
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THE WICEENBUBQ MASSACRE. 319
the Date Creek people were not all anxious for
peace, but would now and then send small par-
ties of their young men to raid and steal from
the pimy settlements like Wiekenburg. The
culmination of the series was the 'Loring' or
'Wiekenburg' massacre, so called from the tal-
ented young scientist, Loring, a member of the
Wheeler surveying expendition, who, with his
companions — a stage-load — was brutally mur-
dered not far from Wiekenburg; of the party
only two escaped, one a woman named Shep-
pard, and the other man named Kruger, both
"General Crook was soon satisfied that this
terrible outrage had been committed by a portion
of the irreconcilable element at the Date Creek
Agency, but how to single them out as individ-
uals and inflict the punishment their crime de-
served, without entailing disaster upon well
meaning men, women and babies who had not
been implicated, was for a long while a most
serious problem. There were many of the tribe
satisfied to cultivate peaceful relations with the
whites, but none so favorably disposed as to im-
part the smallest particle of information in re-
gard to the murder, as it was no part of their
purpose to surrender any of their relatives for
"It would take too much time to narrate in
detail the 'patient search and vigil long' attend-
ing the ferreting out of the individuals con-
cerned in the Loring massacre ; it was a matter
of days and weeks and months, but Crook knew
that he had the right clew, and, although many
times baffled, he returned to the scent witii re-
320 HI8T0BT OF ARIZONA.
newed energy and determmation. The culprits,
who included in their ranks, or at least amoi^
their sympathizers, some*very influential men of
the tribe, had also begun, on their side, to sus-
pect that all was not right ; one of them, I under^
stand, escaped to Southern California, and there
found work in some of the Mexican settlements,
which he could do readily as he spoke Spanish
fluently and once having donned the raiment of
civilization, there would be nothing whatever to
distinguish him from the average of people
"Word reached General Crook, through tiie
Hualapais, that when next he visited Camp Date
Creek, he was to be murdered with all those who
might accompany him. He was warned to be on
the lookout, and told that the plan of the con-
spirators was this : They would appear in front
of the house in which he should take up his head-
quarters, and say that they had come for a talk
upon some tribal matter of importance; when
the General made his appearance, the Ijidians
were to sit down in a semi-cirele in front of the
door, each with his carbine hidden under his
blanket, or carelessly exposed on his lap. The
conversation was to be decidedly harmonious,
and there was to be nothing said that was not
perfectly agreeable to the whites. After the
'talk' had progressed a few minutes, the leading
conspirator would remark that they would all
be the better for a little smoke, and as soon as
the tobacco was handed out to them the chief
conspirator was to take some and begin rolling
a cigarette. (The Indians of the southwest do
not ordinarily use the pipe.) "When the first
THE WICKENBUKG MASSACRE. 321
pufE was taken from the cigarette, the man next
to the chief was to level his weapon suddenly and
kill General Crook, the others at the very same
moment taking the lives of the whites closest to
them. The whole trihe would then be made to
break away from the reserve and take to the in-
accessible cliffs and canyons at the head of the
Santa Maria fork of the Bill Williams. The
plan would have succeeded perfectly, had it not
been for the warning received, and also for the
fact that the expected visit had to be made much
sooner than was anticipated, and thus prevented
all the gang from getting together."
Digressing at this point, Captain Bourke
gives the following account of the death and
burial of Captain Philip Dwyer, 5th U. S. Cav-
alry, which is pathetic in the extreme, and goes
to show the sufferings of our soldiers in these
frontier posts ; the officers and men dyhig, often-
times without the aid of physician or priest,
much less the tender ministrations of women.
"Captain Philip Dwyer, Fifth Cavalry, the
officer in command of the camp, suddenly died,
and this took me down posthaste to assume com-
mand. Dwyer was a very brave, handsome, and
intelligent soldier, much beloved by all his com-
rades. He was the only officer left at Date
Creek — all the others and most of the garrison
were absent on detached service of one kind and
another — and there was no one to look after the
dead man but Mr. Wilbur Hugus, the post
trader, and myself. The surroundings were
most dismal and squalid ; all the furniture in the
room in which the corpse lay was two or
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S22 HISrOBT OF AfilZONA.
three plain wooden chairs, the bed • • • •
and a pine table upon which stood a candle-
stick with the candle melted and burned in
the socket. Dwyer had been 'ailing' for several
days, but no one could tell exactly what was the
matter with him; and^ of course, no one sus-
pected that one so strong and athletic could be in
danger of death.
"One of the enlisted men of his company, a
bright young trumpeter, was sitting up with
him, and about the hour of midnight Dwyer be-
came a trifle imeasy and asked: 'Can you sii^
that new song, "Put me under the Daisies"?*
" 'Oh yes, Captain,' replied the trumpeter;
'I have often sxmg it, and will gladly sing it
"So he began to sing, very sweetly, the ditty,
which seemed to calm the nervousness of his su-
perior officer. But the candle had burned down
in the socket, and when the young soldier went
to replace it, he could find neither candle nor
match, and he saw in the flickering light and
shadow that the face of the Captain was
strangely set, and of a ghastly purplish hue.
The trumpeter ran swiftly to the nearest house
to get another light, and to call for help, but
upon returning found the Captain dead.
"Many strange sights have I seen, but none
that produced a stranger or more pathetic appeal
to my emotions than the funeral of Phil Dwyer ;
we got together just as good an apology for a
coffin as the timberleas country would furnish,
and then wrapped our dead friend in his regi-
mentals, wid blU hands were then ready to stwi:
for the cemetery.
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THE W1GEENBTJBG MA8SACBE. 323
"At the head marched Mr. Hugus, Doctor
Williams, (the Indian Agent), myself, and Lieu-
tenant Hay, of the Twenty-third Infantry, who
arrived at the post early in the morning; then
came the troop of cavalry, dismounted, and all
the civilians living in and aroxmd the camp ; and
lastly every Indian — ^man, woman and child —
ahle to walk or toddle, for aU of them, young and
old, good and bad, loved Phil Dwyer. The sol-
diers and civilians formed in one Ime at the head
of the grave, and the Apadie-Tumas in two long
lines at right angles to them, and on each side.
The few ^ort, expressive and tender sentences
of the burial service were read, then the bugles
sang taps, and three volleys were fired across the
hills, the clods rattled down on the breast of the
dead, and the ceremony was over.'*
Continuing his description of the attempt to
murder General Crook, Captain Bourke says :
"As soon as General Crook learned of the
death of Dwyer, he hurried to Date Creek, now
left without any officer of its proper garrison,
and informed the Indians that he intended hav-
ing a talk with them on the morrow, at the
place designated by himself. The conspirators
thought that their scheme could be carried out
without trouble, especially ^ce they saw no
signs of suspicion on the part of the whites.
General Crook came to the place appointed,
without any escort of troops, but carelessly
strolling forward were a dozen or more of tie
packers, who had been engaged in all kinds of
melees since the days of early California mining.
Each of these was armed to the teeth, and every
revolver was on full cock, and every knife ready
324 HISrOBT OF abizona.
for instant use. The talk was very agreeable,
and not an unpleasant word had been uttered on
either side, when all of a sudden the Indian in
the centre asked for a little tobacco, and, when
it was handed to him, began rolling a cigarette;
before the first puff of smoke had rolled away
from his lips, one of the warriors alongside of
him levelled his carbine full at General Crook,
and fired. Lieutenant Ross, aide-de-camp to
the General, was waiting for the movement, and
struck the arm of the murderer so that the bul-
let was deflected upwards, and the life of the
General was saved. The scriiomage became a
perfect Kilkenny fight in another second or two,
and every man made for the man nearest to him,
the Indian who had given the signal being
grasped in the viselike grip of Hank Hewitt,
with whom he struggled vainly. Hewitt was a
man of great power, and able to master most
men other than professional athletes or prize-
fighters ; the Indian was not going to submit so
long as life lasted, and struggled, bit, and kicked
to free himself, but all in vain, as Hank had
caught him from the back of the head, and the
red man was at a total disadvantage. Hewitt
started to drag his captive to the guardhouse,
but changed his mind, and seizing the Apache-
Mohave by both ears, pulled his head down
violently against the rocks, and either broke his
skull or brought on concussion of the brain, as
the Indian died that night in the guardhouse.
"Others of the party were killed and wounded,
and still others, with the ferocity of tigers,
fought their way out through our feeble Imes,
and made their way to the point of rendezvous
at the head of the Santa Maria. "
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ADAMS, CAPTAIN— With Col. Barnard in light with ApsehM, 29,
ADAHS, C. S. — On« of victimi in Wickesbnig maBBacre, 293.
AQUEBBA, E.— With his clerk and two pueeugerB, murdared bj
AQ UIL AR . — Meiicaa ontlaw shot by party of Americana, SOS.
AGUIEBE, MISS TRINIDAD— KiUed by Indians, 146, 160.
AIKEN, BENJAMIN— Killed by Indians, 138.
AINZA —Has train attacked by IndianB, 1«.
ALDBICS, MASK— Fim settler in valley of Ban Pedro, 207.
ALEXANDER .—Killed by Indiana, 128.
ALEXANDER, QENEBAL— Mention of aeout against Indians, 24.
ALLEN .—Has large number of males stolen by Indians, 189;
has fine cows stolen by Indians, 140,
ALLEN, ADJT.-GENL. J. B.— Alleged to have fnTnisbed snppliea
to participants in Camip Qrant Massacre, 1S9.
ALTMAN JOHN— Killed by IndianB, 131.
ANDREWS, GEORGE L. — SopeiinteDdent of Indian Affairs for
APACHE-MOHATES— Placed npon reservation at Date Cresk,
10; later removed to reaervation at Camp Verde, 10.
ABIOLA .—Has large number of mules stolen by Indians, 1S3.
ARNOLD, WALEe — Has borseB and mules stolen by Indians, 149.
AENT, W. T. M.— Indian Agent, mention of, 222.
AUSTIN, F. L.— Testifles in behalf of Indikns maisaered at Camp
BAKER .—Killed "by Indians, 142.
BAKEB . — And famUy murdered by Mezjcans at Bine Water
BAKEB, JOHN C— Killed by Indians, 130.
BALL 8. — Wounded by Indiana, 13S.
BALLON -^.—Killed by Indinns, 137.
BANTA A. P. — Diseovera "Meteoric Crater," 31; with C. E.
Cooiey and Henry Wood Dodd, goes on pro^Mcting trip into
Indian country, 33 et saq.; makes friends of Coyotero Apa-
ches, 88; induces Capt. Barry to disobey orders to massacre
ApaeJias, S7 et seq.; writes of conditions in Arizona, the mili-
tary, etc., 92 et seq.
BABBA .—Killed by Indiana, 188.
BABBE, JOAQUIN— Suspected participant in Wiefcenburg Mas-
sacre, killed by Joe Fye and Milt Ward. 301.
BABBOUB, CHARLES— Member of coroner's jury on victims ef
Wickenbnrg Massacre, 294.
BABCLAT W. J.— Member of seonting party afUr participants
in Wickenburg Massacre 296.
BABK, JIM— Anecdotes of C. E. Cooiey, 76, 77.
BABNABD, COL. P. P.— Kght with Apaches under Cochise, 37,
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BAKNE8 .—Attacked by IndUna; store barned wd eff«eta
e&iried awaj, 130.
BAENETT, AAEON— Member ot corooer's jory on vietims of
WickanbDrg Masiaere, 294.
BABNEY, COL. JAMES M.— AwirtF General Crook in ioTeitig*.
tion of Wiekenbnrg MaiMcre, 306.
BABBT, CAPT. JOHN—In eommand of expedition to muaacM
Apaebei 50; is induced to disobej orders by Banta, Cooley
and Dodd and has ehareea preferred arainst him by Colonel
Grean, 67 et aeq.; eipecUtiou mentioned by Oenl. Ord in re-
port, 81 et aeq.
BABHFOBD, LEVY— Mention of, IBS.
BEACH .—Train attacked by Indians, 143, 1*4.
BEAN, C. C— Mention of, 172.
BEAN, E. C— Killed by Indians, 131.
BEAUCHAMP, "JACK"— Killed by Indians, 127.
BEDEL .—One of party of Americans, shot by Oandara, SOS.
BELNAP .—Killed by Indiana, 127.
BENDBLL, H. — Superintendent of Indian Affairs foi Arizona, S;
ageists General Crook in inTestigation of WickenbDig Haa-
BENJAMIN .— Killt-d by Indians, 142.
BENTLET, E. A.— Killed by Indians, 129.
BKNTON .—Killed by Indiana, 138.
BEBEY, TH08. N.— KQled by Indians, 138.
BIBESLEY, DE. — Post Surgeon at Camp Grant; aeeonnt of condi-
tion of Tic time of MasBacre, 160.
BLANCHAED . — Killed by Indians, 148.
BLANCHAED, J. C— Eanch attacked and destroyed by Indians,
BLOWE .—Wounded by Indians, 142.
BLUE WATEB MAfiPACBE— Baker and family murdered by
BOQGS, T. W.— Has horse stolen by Indians, IM,
BOONE, WM.— Killed by Indians, 129.
BOUNS, MES. (DONNA TOMASE)— Gives J. M. Bryan warning
of Wiekenburg Massacre, 299.
BOUBKE, LIEUT. J. G. — Aeaiats General Crook in investigBtion
of Wiekeubnrg Massacre, 304 et seq.; gives aeeonnt of attempt
on General Crook's life, 318 et seq.
BOWERS BEOTHEEe — Have herds atoleu by Indians, 147, 14Q.
BOWSES, GBOHQE— Killed by Indians, 131.
BOWEES, HEEBEET— Indians steal stock from, resulting in sne-
ceasfnl citiien expedition against tbem, 171 et seq.
BOYCE . — Member of citizen expedition against Indiana, 170
BEODEBICK, JOHN— Killed by Indiana, 129.
BEOOKS, H. — Has aheap and goats stolen by Indians, 133.
BBOWN . — Has stock stolen by Indiana, 140.
BBOWN, SAMUEL— Killed by Indiana, 139, 164.
BBOWN, W. H.— Indian agent at San Carlos reaervatioo, 17.
BBOWNE, J. BOSS— Mention of, 2.
BBOWNLET .—Killed by Indians, 136.
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BBTAN, OEOBOB— Member of Mouting partj kfter participants
in Wickenbarg Hbbbsctc, 296.
BBYAN, J. M. (CRETE)— Forwarnsd of Wickonbnrg HuMten,
BULLARD, JOHN — Member of citizen expedition atmiiiat iDdians,
BULLOCK, J. T.— Killed by Indians, 13E.
BUMOS, LIEUT. PETER 8.— Mention of, 228.
BUBQER A LAMBBRT80N— Have hotaea and burroe stolen bj
BDBGEB, JOHN— Killed hy iDdians, 147.
BUBOEB, JOHN— Wounded bj Indians, 196.
BURGER, JOHN— Kills one of suspected participants in Wiekoo-
borg Massacre, 301.
BURNETT, WILLIAM— Killed by Indiana, 131.
BURNS, WM,— Killed by Indiana, 142.
BUBfiOUOHS, JOSEPH— Killed by Indiana, 149.
BTHNE, CAPT. THOMAS — Singlelianded stops outbreak of Wal-
lapais, fi; aaaistB General Crook in investigation of Wicken-
buig Massacre, 306.
CALHOUN, LIEUT,- With Capt. Barry on expedition to maseaere
CALIFORNIA — Liegislature of passes resolution relating to IniUan
affairs in Arizona,' 196 et seq.
CALKINS, SHERIFF— Wounded by Indians, 128.
CAMP APACHE — Vincent Colyer establishes Indian reservation
CAMP GOODWIN— Location of, S3.
CAMP GRANT — Vincent Colyer eBtabUsbee Indian reservation at,
CAMP GRANT MABSACRE — Public sentiment in regard to, 103
et aeq.; military account of, 167 et seq.; trial of partieipanta
in, and charge of Judge Titus to jury, 161 et seq.
CAMPIO, DIEGO— Killed by Indians, 140.
CAMP McDOWELL— Vincent Coylcr establishcB Indian reserra-
tloa at, 16; abolished by Qenl. O. O. Howard, 16.
CAMP ORD — Established by Col. John Green, name afterwards
changed to Fort Apache, 95.
CAMP VEBDE — ApaohB-MobaveB placed upon reservation at, 10;
reservation established by Vincent Colyer, 12, 278.
CABLETON, OENEBAL — In favor of extermination of Indians,
CABBOLL .—Captured and carried off by Indiana, 136; hilled,
CHAFFEE, ADNA B. — Indian agent at San Carlos reservation, 17.
CHAPIN .—Killed bv Indians, 147.
CHIBICAHUA APACHES— Gathered upon reservation, 14, IB;
removed to other reservations or run away, 16.
CHIBICAHUA BE8EBVATI0N— Eetablishod by Qenl. O. O.
Howard, 14; restored to public domain, 16.
CIENEGA — Stage employees at murder travellere^ 202, 203.
CBADLEBAUOH, LIEUT,— Accompanies Capt. Wm, Ory on ex-
pedition into Indian country, 116; haa command attacked by
Indians, 142. 143.
CLENDENIN, MAJOB — Scout of aninst Indiana, U.
CLOWEB EDWABD— Killad by Indimns, IM.
CLUM, JOHN P.— Indian agant at San Carloa rewrrttion, 17.
COCHISE — CommandB Apachea in fight ivith Col. P. F. BarnariL Z7
et aeq.: at bead of band tbat killed Lieut. Honard B. CDBhing,
COGSWELL, COLONEL — Oivea instructions for expeditioai
against hostile Indiana, IIS; aeeompanies Qsneral Stonemaa
on trip thiongh Indian country, 117 et seq.
COLLINS, JOHN— Killed bj Indiana, 142.
COLLINS, MAJOB— Mention of, 72^ with LieQt.-Col. Sanford ii
eipedition againtt Indiana, 112.
OOLYER, TINCBNT— Establishes Indian resemtton at Date
Creek, 10; establishes reseTvation at Camp Verde, 12, 878;
arrival in Arizona, laoora and report of 211 et seq; erttieiH*
proclamation of 0«t. Safford, 247; returns to Washington, SSI
CONWBUj, C— Has horses and mnles stolen by Indians, 140.
COOK .—Killed by Indians, 148.
SOOE, BET. CHARLES H. — Missionary to Pimaa, mention of,
iJOOLEB, GEOBQB — 'With Capt. Barry on expedition to massacre
CO0LE7, C. E.— With A. F. BanM and Henn Wood Dodd, goet
on proapecting trip into Indian country, 33 et seq.; after lit*
of, 76 et seq.
COOPER ——.—Killed by Indians, 148.
COBDOBA, LEONABD— Mexican outlaw who partieip*t«d ia
murder of Vicente Eemandes and wife lynched, 206.
(X)SGE0VE .—Killed by Indiana, 127.
COTOTBEO APACHES— Placed upon reservation, B.
COZOZO .—Killed by Indians, 136.
CBESBT, CAPTAIN— Inspects outfit of Banta, Cooley and Dodd,
CBOOE, QENEBAL GEO. — Opposes remoTal of Indians to Saa
Carlos, 14; Bucceeds General Stoneman, 104, I9B; assumes
command but suspends operations account of arrival of "Peace
Commiasiou," 208; receives Peace Commissioner Vincent
Colyer, 279; personally conducts inveBtt(^tion of Wickenbnrg
Massacre, 9M et seq; attempts to aasassuiate, 308 et seq.
CB088, L.— Killed by Indiana, 128.
CUNNINGHAM, CHARLES— Killed by Indiana, 128.
CUETIS .■ — Wounded by Indians, 141.
CURTIS, CAPT. JAMES — Reports to Peace Commissioner Vincent
Colyer, 264 et acq.
CDBHING, UEHT HOWARD B.— Expeditions against hostile
Indians, 101 et seq. 114, 116; killed by Indians, 147; expedi-
tions against Indians, 166; account of killing of, 108 et seq.
DANIELS .—Killed by Indians, 136.
DATE CBEEK— Indian reservation established at by Vincent
Colyer, 10; abolished by OenL O. O. Howard, 10.
DAVIS .—Killed by Indiana, 137.
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DATI8, C. "JEFP'— Fight witfa Indiana, 103; memlMT of Bitiun
expedition aKsimt Indiaus, 172.
DE LONG, 8. B.— UentioD of, ISS.
DENNIS, JOHN T.— Loeee large nnmber of eattle »nd bonat
throogb IndiftD r&id, 99.
DENNieON, WM. E.— EiUed b; Indiuu, ISC
DENT, OEOBQE W.— SnperiittondeDt of Indian affalra for
DEVIN, QENEBAL THOMAS E.— Report for 1866, 23; mention
of, 69; in command of southern nulituy district of Arisona,
DICKSON, JOHN— Attacked bj Infant, 131.
DODD, HENBT WOOD— With A, P. Banta and C. E. Cooley, goes
on prospecting trip into Indian eonntry, 33 et seq.; nu^e to
dance bj Indians, 66.
"DODD'S DANCE"— Name given to place where Henry Wood
Dodd was made to dance by Apaches, 66,
DODT, HELENAS — Indian Agent on Colorado ffiver reservation, S.
DOBQAN, P.— Wonnded by Indiana, 134.
DUDLEY, MAJOB— In command at McDowell, 192.
DUDLEY, QENL. N. A. M.— In command at McDowell, Teeeiret
Peace Commisiioner Vincent Colyer, 2C6; reports to Comr.
Colyer, 269 et seq.; 270 et seq.
DUDLEY, 8UPT. L. E. — Endeavors to have ChiricAhnu removed
to Hot Springs, 16.
DUN JOHN — Freaenti C. B Gennng with Winchester rifle, 193.
DUNN, A. G.— Has cattle stolen 'by Indians, 134.
DUNN, CAPT. THOS. a— Mention of, 230.
DOVALL .— Ejlled by Indians, 129.
DWYEB, CAPT. PHILLIF^Death and barial of, 321 et seq.
EATON, LIEUT. GEO. 0.— Indians go irith to San Carlos reserva-
BB8TEIN, LIEUT. P. H. E.— In charge of Indian reservation at
Date Creek, 10.
BHBENBEBQ, HEEMAN— Indian Agent on Colorado Biver
ELGEB, COLONEL— Mention of, 74.
ELIAB, JESUS M.— Given ere^t for planning Camp Grant Mas-
■acre, 168 et seq.
ELIAS, JUAN— HftB herd stolen by Indians, 1*7.
EBWIN, ALONZO M.— Killed by Indians, 136.
EVAET8 .—Killed by Indiana, 129.
EXPLOBATIONS AND 8UBVEY8— General Ord sends out ex-
pedition nnder Lient. George M. Wheeler, 86.
FABLEY, WM.— KiUed by Indians, 136.
PENTON, P.— Wonnded by Indians, 143.
FINNEBTY, WESLEY— Killed by Indians, 182.
PLYNN COBPOBAL— With troops that joined citiwn expedition
against Indians, 178 et seq.
FOLEY .—Wonnded by Indiana, 148.
FOBD, Q. — Indian agent at Ban Carlos reservation, 17.
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n>BT APACHE— Vincent Collet Mt«bluhM IndUn reaomtiai
at, 16; flrat known u Camp Ord, 86.
POSTEE .— KUIod by Indiina, 138. .
rOUBB, WILLIAM— Mention of, B6.
FUDGE, JOHN— Indian Agent on Cotorado Biver rMerration, G.
FYE, JOE — Has cattle atolen b; Indiana, 134; kill* nspected par-
ticipuita in Wiekeaborg Maaaacre, 301.
GAITDABA . — Mexican auspected of participation in diaappeai'
anca of William McFarland, shot bj party of Amarieana, 203.
OANTT .— KiUed by Indians 147.
OABDNEB .— Haa stock Btolen by Indian*, 140.
QBNUNO, C. B. — OrganiK'B aucceEsful citiien expedition a^ainit
Indiana, 170 et seq.; belief that Mexicans committed Wieken-
bnrg Manaere, 29B; BBsiBta General Crook in investigation of
Wiekenbnrg Mastacre, 306; aceoont of General Crook's at-
tempt to capture or kill IndiauB inspected of being partiei-
panta in Wiekenbnrg Massacre, 300 et soq.
0IB80N, J. J.— Killed by Indians, 131.
GIL80N, WILLIAM— Informs General Crook that Date Creek
Indians committed Wickenburg Massacre, 303.
QLOVEB, PBIVATE— Killed by Indians, ISO.
QOLDWATEB, JULIUS A. — Member of coroner's jnry on victimf
of Wiekenbnrg Massacre, 204.
QOMEZ PANCHO— Haa cattle stolen by Indians, 138.
QONZALES, A. — Mistaken for Indian by eompaniona, and
QONZALES, PHILIP— Guide for Comr. Vincent Colyer, 21B.
GOULD, JACK— Killed by Indiana, 120.
OBAHAM, LIEDT.— CoDdQcts expedition against hostile Indians,
QBASSMAN, P. E.— Agent for Pima Indians, 4.
GBAY, COL. A. B.^Snrveys reservation for Pimaa and Marico-
GBAY, HABBI80N— Killed by Indians, 132.
GEEELEY .— KUled by Indians, 134.
OBEEN, COLONEL JOHN— Prefers charges against Capt. Barry
for disobeying orders to massacre Indians, 60; mention of in
report of General Ord, 81 et seq.; in command at Camp Oood-
win, 03; conducts campaign against the Indians and estab-
lishes Camp Ord, 04, 95; receives Comr. Vincent Coyler, 821.
GBEEN, JOE— Killed by Indians, 130.
OBEEN, MAJOR — Accompanies General Stoneman on trip through
Indian country, 117 et seq.
QBEEN, PBIV ATE— Killed by Indians, 147.
GBEOALBA, JUAN— Has cattle Btolen by Indians, 140.
QBIPPIN, FBANK — ^Uiatakes A. Goneales for Indian and wounds
OBOVEB, QENEBAL— Commanding at Camp Verde, reeoives
Peace Comissioner VinceDt Colyar, 275.
HADLEY, MILTON 8,— Killed by In^ana, 132.
HALLECK, QENL.— Believed of command of Division of Paeifle
by Ua}.-<}enl. Thomas, 21.
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HANNA . — Haa wagon train deHtroyed by Indiana, 103, 104.
HANNA .—Train attacked by Indiana and Mr, Hanna killed,
HAKRINQTON .—Killed by Indiana, 129, 148.
HABEIS, W. H.— KiUed by Indiana, 148.
HARRISON, SAMUEL— Killed by Indians, 127.
HABT, H. L.— Indian azent at San Carlos leserration, 17,
HASSON, LIEUTENANT— Scont of against Indians, 24.
HATZ, DANIEL— Has house burned by Indians, 160.
HAT, LIEUTENANT— Mention of, 323.
HELUNGS, W. B. ft CO.— Train attacked by Indiana, 143.
HENNINQ, ABRAHAM— Killed by Indiana, 14S.
HENRY, COL. OUY V.— Indians under ordera of attack and kill
other Indiana, 224.
EEBNANDE8, VICENTE — With wife murdered by Mexican ont-
HEWITT, HENBY— Aasista General Crook in inveatigation of
Wickenburg Maaaacre, 305 et seq.
HI JOLLY— Mention of, 190.
HINDS & HOOKEB— Have herda attacked by Indiana, 146, 147.
HTNTON, FRANCIS— Agent for Ynmae, 4.
HOLCOMB & MURRAY- Have cattle stolen by Indians, 146.
HOLLAND, DAVID— KiUed by Indiana, 141.
HOPKINS, GILBERT W.— Killed by Indians, 136.
HOPKINS, J. W.— Mention of, 168.
HOWARD, GENL. O. 0.— Aboliahes Indian reservation at Date
HOWARD, JUDGE— Mention of 194.
HOWELL, JOHN— Killed by Indians, 132.
HUGHES .—Has ranch attacked by Indians, 146.
HUGU8, WILBUB — Mention of, 321.
HUMPHBEYS, GENEBAL A. A.— Mention of, 86.
HDTTON, OSCAB — Recommended for eondnet on expedition
against Indians, 115; teatiSes in behalf of Indiana maBsaered
at Camp Grant, 242, 243,
INDIAN AGENTS— Steal from Indiana, 11.
INDIAN RESERVATIONS— One for Pimaa and Marieopaa estab-
lished, 3; one for Yumas established, 4; one for friendly In-
dians established on Colorado, 4, 6; one for Moquis establiabed,
6; one for Mohavea eatablished, 6; one for WuUapaia estab-
lished, S; one established at Date Creek by Vincent Colyer,
but abolished by Qenl. O. O. Howard, 10; Chiricahua reserva-
tion, esUblished by Genl. O. O. Howard, 14; one established
at Camp McDowell, one at Camp Grant, one at Port Apache
and one in White Mountains, 16; San Carlos reservation eatab-
lished, 16; one established at Camp Apache, 221.
INDIAN RING — Opeiationa of, 10, 11; method* of, 98.
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334 . INDEX.
INDIANS— B»»er»»Uon *or KmM ud HaiieopM wtoblishsd,
S; reserration lot Yumaa esUbliih«d, 4; TtaerrKtioii for
friendly Indiuu eatabliahed on Color^o, A, B; Nkvabo*
placed upon re«erT»tion, B; Coyotero Apaehei pl&eed upon
rMerration, S; Hoqnis placed upon reservation, 6; reserra-
tion eatabliahed for Hohavea, 6; reaerration eatablished for
Wallapaii, 8; reservation established at Date Creek, 10; re-
moval to San Carlos, 13, 14; Chmuhoa reservation eatab-
liahed by Genl. O. O. Howard, 14; number and location of
in Arizona in 1863, IS; ezterminatine policy, 19 et soq.;
ezpeditiona against, 23 et seq.; depredations, 23; resnme de-
predations and raids, W et seq.; hostilee get arms, etc,
tbrough Moqnis, 110, 111; description of trip throngh Indian
country by John Marion, in "Miner," 117 et aeq.; "Miner"
prints petition to Preiiident with list of three hundred and
one names of people killed by Indians, 124 et aeq.; ootragas
by and condition of, mentioned by Gov. Safford in mcBssge
to Legislature, IBl et seq.. Camp Grant Massacre, and ereata
foUowing, IBS et seq.; citizens' eipediUons against, 170 at
■eq ■ California Legislature passes resolution reUting to In-
dian AJtaire in Ari«on^ 1(» et seq.; flghU of Captain Moor*
and Captain Bussell with, 20S.
ISEAEL .—Killed by Indians, 100. 141.
JACKSON, A. J.— Killed by Indians, 140, 164.
JACOBS, ED. C— Indian agent at Ban Carlos reaerr^tton, 17.
JAEAMILLO, JOSE— Killed by Indians, 137.
JAY, LEBOY —Killed by Indians, 129.
JEPPOEDB, CAPT. THOMAS J.— Agent for Chmcaho*
JOACHIM .—Killed by Indians, 130.
JOHNS . — Wounded by Indians, 141,
JOHNSON .— KiUed by Indians, 138, 137.
JOHNSON, ALTBED— Kifled by Indiana, 134.
JOHNSON HABBY, "HOO"- Ailed by Indjans, IBS.
JONES Dr. W. W.— Has train attacked by Indians, 148.
JONES) W. P.— Billed by IndUns, 127.
JUDSON .—Killed by Indians, 142.
KALEB Killed by Indians, 138. .
KAUFMAN, CAPTAIN— Has aix mnles stolen from escort bJ
KAUT2, QENEBAL— Oppoaes removal of Indians to San Cailoa,
KELLY, OSCAB —Killed by Indiani, 1».
KENNEDY .-KiUed by Indians, 100. 101, X*l-
KILUAN, JOHN — KUIed by Indians, 142.
KINO .— KUled by Indians, 136.
KING, GEORGE —Killed by Indians, 143,
TTPrTCTRN -TETE " — Btanda ofT hostile ApaeHea, »n.
m^S^'rSliS-Interpreter for Comr Vincent Colder, ^
testifies in behalf of Indians massacred at Camp Grant, a«.
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KNODLE, BAM — Wounded by Indiana, 112.
KN0WLE8 .— KiUed by IndiftM, 13$.
KEUOEB . — One o( survivors of Wickenburg
LACHMAN, HENBT— Killed by Indians, 146.
LAFPKETT, UEUTENANT.— Wounded in fight with Apwhea,
LAKBABEE, C. F.— 'Indi&n agent at San Cailos Tesorrfttlon, 17.
LAZABD . — Has cattle stolen by Indians, 111.
L EE, J. H.— Hu eattle stolen by Indians, 136.
L£IHT, OEOBGE W.— Snperliitbudent of Indian Affain for
Arizona, 2; killed by Indians, 129.
IvEMON, SEBGEA NT— Killed by Indians, 130.
LENT & HAKPENDING PABTY.— Attacked oj Indians, 102.
LEONARD .—Wounded by Indiana, IIS.
LINTON L. M.— Killed by Indians, 129.
LOOKWOOD, LTEUT. D. W.— Afwistant to Lieot. Qeorge M.
Wheeler on exploring expedition, 88.
LONG, HENET — KUIed by Indians, 147, 164.
LOPEZ, CLEIHENTE — Mexican ontlaw who partieipated in
mnrder of Vicente Hernandea and wife lyncned, 30S.
LOPEZ, 8ECIIHDIA —Killed by Indians, ISl.
LOBD, C. H. — Deputy agent for Pima Indians, 4.
LOSING, FEED. W. — One of victima is Wiekenbnrg Uusacre,
290 et seq.
LUGAS, LUCAS— One of Mezicans who killed Edward Lumley,
LUMLET, EDWABD— Killed by Mexicans, 20*.
LTNCHENQS — Of Mexican outlaws, 203 et aeq.
LTTLE .—Murdered by Mexicans at Mission Camp, 201.
HeCALL, D. T.— Killed by Indiana, 130.
McCLBAVB, IJKDT. WM. — Scout of against Indiana, 24 et seq.
UeCOBMICE, GOV. E. C— Mentton of, 1«4; reports Hexiean
ontragea to Government. 202.
MeDEEWIN, JOHN— Mention of, 172.
McDOUOALL .—Killed by Indians, 148.
McTAELAND, WILLIAM —etationkeeper at Saeaton; myateri-
ons disappearance of attributed to Hexieans, 203.
McGEEOOB, CAPT. THOMAS —Mention of, 268.
McKENZIB, ALEXANDEE —Killed by Indians, 147, 164.
McMUBBAY .—Killed by Indians, 137.
UeWHOBTEB, JOHN —Killed by Indians, 130.
MABICOPA8— Eeservation for, with Pimas, aet aside, S.
MAEION, JOHN— Writea editorial in "Miner" deseribing trip
tbrODgh Indian conntiy with General Stoneman, 117 et aeq.;
meets Vincent Colyer, Peace Commiasioner, 280, 281.
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MASON, COL. JUUU8 W.— So perin tends taking out of irri-
gating ditch on reteTratioa at Camp Terde, 12.
MAY, DENNIS — Member o( coroner'a jnry on victims of Wiek-
enburg Maiaacre, 2M.
MEINHOLD, CAPT.— With Lieot. Col. Sanford in oxpedition
againit Indians, 112; takes up trail of participants in Wiek-
eoburg MaBsacre, 292, 203, &S4.
MELLEN .—Killed by Indians, 127.
MELVIN OEOHGE— Killed by Indians, 132.
MERRILL, PRIVATE —Killed by Indians, 130.
MESSEUR, PRANK —Killed by Indians, 142.
METEORIC CRATER— IJiscovered by A. F. Banta, 31.
MEXICANS— Outrages by, 201 et seq.; suspected of commit-
ting W'ickcnburg MasHscre, 294 et seq.
MEYERS, PRIVATE- Wounded by Indians, 143,
MILITARY— Major Genersl Thomas relieves General Hftlleck
in command of Division of Pacific, 21; Qenl. Ord assumes
command of Department of Arizona, 21, 22; report of Oenl.
Devin, 23; scouts and expeditions against Indians, 24 et
seq.; Capt. Barry disobeys orders to massaere Indians, 57
et ieq.; report of Major Oeneral George H. Thomas, 78
et seq.; report of General Ord, 79 et seq.; exploring ex-
pedition nndor Lieut. George M. Wheeler sent out, 86;
immense cost of supplies in AriEona, B6, B7; policy of ex-
termination followed, 91; description of by A. F. Banta,
03 et seq.j General George Stonemsn assigned to command
of Arizona, 96; refuses Gov. Safford's request for supplies
for three companies of volunteers, 107, 108; activities of,
111 et seq.; account of Camp Grant Massacre, 107 et seq.;
General Stoneman succeeded by General Crook, criticism
of General Stoneman, 199 et seq.; fights with Indians by
Captain Moore and Captain Bnssell, 208.
M1LITI.4— Gov. Safford issues call for raising of, 108, 109.
MILLER, J.— Has horses stolen by Indians 138.
MILLER, MAJOR —With four soldiew, killed by Indians, 136.
"MINER"— Editorial describing trip through Indian country,
117 et seq.; prints petition to the President with list of
three hundred and one names of people killed by Indians,
124 et seq.
MISSION CAMP MASSACRE^-Committed by Mexicans, 201.
MOHAVES— Keaervation established for, 6.
MOLING, JOSE— Killed by Indians. 131.
MONROE, PAYMASTER— Mention of, 124.
MOORE, CAPTAIN— Fight with Indians, 208.
MOQUIS— Reservation established for, 6.
MORGAN, DAVID— Member of coroner's jury or victims of
Wick en burg Massacre, 294.
MORRIS, MACK— Foreman of coroner's jury on victims of
WickenbuTg Masaacre, 291.
MORROW, PRIVATE —Killed by Indians, 180.
MOBTON, LIEUT.— In command of detachment of troops, joins
citizen expedition against Indians, 174.
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MOTT, SEBQEANT JOHN —With Lieul. Howwd B. Cnshing
when latter was killed by Apaehea under Coehise 166
MOWBY, 8YLVESTEH— Mention of, 124.
MUNSOE, GEOEGE —Leader of paMj that trftUed participanti
m Wickenborg UasBaere, 290 et aeq.
MUBPHY .—With Lieut. Col. Sanford as mide, in eipedi-
tion against Indiana, 112.
MUBPHY, PKIVATE— Killed by Indiana 130.
MUBRAY, FBANK— Mention of, 315.
MYEBS —.— Wounded bj Indians, 141.
NAVAHOS— Placed upon leBervation 5
NELSON, CAPTAIN WM.— Befuaes' to allow band of armed
citizens to cross reaeTvation, 214: reeeives Comr. Vincent
NETTEEVILLE, CAPTAIN W. McC— Beport on interviews
with Indian Chiefs, 287 et seq.
NIX, BOBBBT— Killed by Indiana, 131.
NOYIS, A. 0,— Has record of over three hundred men killed bv
Indiana, 104. '
NUNEZ, VENTUBA —Mexican outlaw who murdered O. E.
Whialer, captured and lynched, 207.
, OAPT. — Commanding at Camp Date Creek, re-
quested by Peace Commissioner Vincent Colyer to look
after Apache-Mohave Indians, 2SS.
O'DONNELL .— KUled by Indians, 137.
O'DONNELL, JOHN— Killed by Indians, 131.
O'LEABY, DAN— Mention of, 303.
OLIVER .— Mnrdered by Mexicans at Mission Camp, 201.
OBD, GENL. E. O. C. — Assumes command of Department of
Arizona, 21, 22; report on conditions in Arizona, 79 et seq.;
sends out exploring expedition under Lieut. Qeorge M.
Wheeler, 88; in command of Department of the Pacific, 93.
OBT, CAPT. ■WILLIAM- Conducts expedition into Indian
OSBOBN, DAVID— Killed by Indiana, 132.
08B0RN, W. J.— Has mules stolen by Indians, 139.
OUBY, W. 8.— Mention of, 163, 168, 159.
PALMEfi, CAPT. A. L.— States hostiles get arms, etc., througfa
MoquU, 110, 111.
PANTANO— See Cienega.
"PEACE COMMISSION"— Mention of[ IMj arrival in Ariaona
of Vincent Colyer, Peace Commissioner, 211; report of, 212
et seq.; establishes reservation at Camp Apache, 221; feel-
ing towards "Peace Policy" in Arizona, 247 et seq.; estab-
lishes reservation at Camp Verde, 278; returns to Wash-
ington, 286 et seq.
PEAB80N, WILLIAM —Killed by Indians, 133.
raiLET, JULIUS— Killed by Indians, 132.
PENN, CAPTAIN —Sends word to Lieut. Whitman of mo»e-
menta of participants in Camp Qrant Massacre, 160.
PENNINGTON .—And bod, kUled by Indiana, IW, 164.
PENNINGTON, JAME8 — KiUed by IntUans, 137.
PESQUIEBA .—Attacked by IndUna, 136.
PE8QUIEBA, GOVEBNOB— Of Mexico, afford* proWction »
Hexicani committing outrages in AriEona, 201.
PETBBaON, OLTVEB —Killed by IndUns, 134.
FIMA8 AND HABICOPAS— BeaeTTation act aside for, 3.
PIPBB, O. F. — Sonthem Apaches agent, 218.
P088, LIEDT. J. M.— With Lieut. Col. Sanford in expedition
•gainst Indians, 113.
POBTLE, BOBEET— Mention of, 187.
POeTON, CHABLES D.— First Superintendent ot Indian
Affairs for Arizoua, 2.
PODGBOT, FRANK— Killed by IndUns, 131.
PBBNTI8S, EDWABD — Member of scouting party after par-
ticipants in 'K^ekenburg Uassaere, 296.
PBESIDENT — "Miner" prints petition to, with list of three
hundred and one names of people killed by Indiani, 1S4
PRICE — ^.— KiUed by Indians, 137.
PEICE, COLONEL —Mention of scout of against Indians, S4.
PUBCELLA, F. — Member of coroner'* Jury on victima of Wiek-
enburg Massacre, 2M.
BALSTON, MBS.— Bobbed by Indians, li4.
BAYMOND .—KUled by IndUns, 128, 129.
BEDMOND .-Post trader at Camp Apache killed by In-
BEID .—Murdered by Mexicans at Minion Camp, 201.
BEVUN, MABK —Mail carrier, killed by IndUns, 147.
BEYBS, MANUEL — Mexican outlaw shot by party of Ameri-
BICHABI^ON, CHABLEa H.— Member of coroner's jnry o»
victims of Wickenburg Massacre, 2M.
BICO, JOSE— Killed by Indians, ISl.
BIG08, PETBB— Killed by Indians, 141.
BILEY, LIEUTENANT— With detachment attacked by In-
BIVEBA, MARTIN— KiUed by Indians, 142.
B0BEBT8, J. E. — Indian agent at San Carlos reservation, 17.
BODBICK, TOM— Member of citisen expedition against In-
dians, 172 et seq.
BOOERS AND SMITH— Attacked by Indians, 14B.
BOSS, LIEUTENANT —Assists General Crook in investlgatimt
of Wickenburg Massacre, 304 et seq.
BOSS, MAJOR WILLIAM J.— Mention of, 167,
BOTHEBWBLL .—Killed by Indians, 164.
EUGOLE8, COLONEL— Has horses stolen by Indiana, 140.
BUGGLES, LEVI— Agent for Pima Indians, 4.
BU88ELL, CAPTAIN —Fight with Indians, 208.
BUTLEDGE, THOMAS —Killed by Indiana, 136.
BYAN, JOHN— Killed by Indians, 128.
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INDEX. . 339
SAFFOBD, A. P. E.— Appointed Oovernor of Arizons 104:
hia interview with "New York Herald," 106, 106; aaks for
nppliea for three companies of volunteers, 106, 107- re-
quest refwied, 107, 108; isanea call for raisiiig miUtia, 108,
10»; in metMge to Legislature calls attention to Indian
ontrafss, et«., 161 et seq.; issnes procUmatioa TCffarding
"Peace Commission" 210, 211; proclamation criticised by
Comr. Vincent Coljer 2(8, 249.
SAGE, COBNELIUS— Killed by Indians 128.
BAGUABIPA, JESUa— Mexican outlaw who participated in
murder of Vicente Hernandes and wife lynched, 206.
SALALLO, JOSE MARIA —Member of sconting jiirty after
participants in Wickenburg Massacre, 290,
SALMON, W. O.— One of victims in Wickenbuts Massacre.
290 et seq. ' '
SAN CABL08 REaEBVATION— Establishment of, 16.
8ANP0RD, LIEUT. COL. Q. B.— Expeditions against hostile
Indians, 112 et seq.
SAN PEDEO— Valley of first settled by Mark Aldrich, 207.
SADNDEES .—Killed by Indians, 1*8, 164.
6CHOPIELD, GENEBAL— Mention of, 214, 284.
SCHUYLBB, WALTBB 8.— In charge of Indians on reserva-
tion at Camp Verde, 12; ancceeds Dr. miliame as agent
at San Carlos, IS.
SCOTT .—Killed by Indians, 142.
8EEBBIGHT .—Killed by Indians, 134.
SEXTON, W. M.— Killed by Indians, 130.
SHELDON, J.— Killed by Indians, 132.
SHELTON, C. Y.— Hag mnlea stolen by Indiana, 148.
eHEPPARD, Mias— One of survivors of Wickenburs MasBacre.
289 et seq.
8HEBMAN, GENL.— Peace CommisdoDer to Indians, 6.
^lEBMAN, LIEUT.— With Lieut. Col. Sanford in expedition
against Indians, 112.
8H1BLEY, JOHN Y.— Killed by Indians, 102, 103, 132.
SHOHOLM, PBED. W.— One of victims in Wickenhnrg Mas-
sacre, 290 et s«q.
SIEZ .— KUled by Indians, 140.
SIMMS, J.— Killed by Indians, 139, 164.
eiMMONS, WM.— Has stock stolen by Indians, 149.
SIMPSON, W. H.— Killed by Indians, 147.
SMITH .—Killed on ranch of Peter Kitchen by Indians, 141.
SMITH, CAPTAIN — Accompanies General Btoneman on trip
through Indian country, 117 et seq.
SMITH, CEABLES- KiUed by Indians, 128.
SMITH, D. H.— Aesiats General Crook in investigation of 'niek-
enburg Massacre, 306.
SMITH, JACOB— Killed by Indians, 132,
SMITH, LIEUT.— With Lieut. Col. Sanford in expedition
against Indians, 112; accompanies Lieut. Gushing, 114, 116.
SMITH, BOBBBT— Killed by Indians, 131.
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SUITH, W. H. — Hemb«r of eitiun expedition kninst Indiana,
170 et Mq.
SOMER8 .—Killed by Indiana, 128.
eOMMEEBBE, LIEUTENANT —Seont of azaintt Indiana, 24.
SOTO .—Killed by Indiana, 136, 140.
BPia^CEB, CHARLES— Wounded by Indiana, ISO; interpietw
for General Crook, 313.
STIOEBS, DH.— Wounded by Indiana, 143,
BTEINBBOOK —.—Killed by Indians, 129.
STEVENS, QBORQE H.— Indian agent at San Carina reMrTA-
8TIMPS0N, JAMBS H.— Killed by IndUn^ 142.
STONE, COLONEL— Killed by Indiana, 1S7,
STONEMAN, GENERAL QEOBOE — Aeiigned to eommand of
Arizona, M; his policy, 97; anceeeded by QeneTal Crook,
104; makes trip throngh Indian country, 117 et leq.; inter-
viewB witb Indian chiefa, 121 et seq.; mention of, 16S;
succeeded by Qeneral Crook, criticiim of, 199 et aeq.; boilda
road* in Territory, 207, 208.
8TODT, J. H. — Agent for Pima Indiana, 4; makes report to
Peace Commisaioner YiQcent Colyer, 263 et seq.
STDAET, COMB. GEORGE H.— Mention of, 217.
SUBIATE, MANUEL— One of Mexicans who killed Edward
SUMMERHATES, MBS.— Deaeription of C. £. Cooley'a honse,
6UTORIU8, CAPTAIN— With Lieut. Col. Sanford in expedi-
tion against ladiaua, 113.
8WTLLTN0, "JACK "—Mention of, 74.
TAGGABT, J.— Killed by Indiana, 129.
TAGGART, WILLIAM —KiUed by Indiana. 130.
TANNER, J. A.— Indian agent on Colorado River reserration, 6.
TAYLOB. WILLIAM —Killed by Indiana, 132.
TEP3, JUAN— Killed by Indians, 131.
THOMAS, ELLIOTT ft DAWSON.— Attacked by Indians;
wagon and load destroyed, 134.
THOMAS, MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE H.— Helievea General
Halleek in command of Diviaion of Pacific, 21; report en
conditions in AriKona, 78 et aeq.
THOMPSON, B. F.— Killed by Indians, 131.
THOMPSON, CUNT — Haa cattle stolen by Indians, 189.
THOMPSON, D. C— Indiana atUck men working for, 144.
TI3NAD0, MARIANO —Mexican lynched for cattle stealing,
20 4, 206.
TTTUS, JUDGE — Charge to jnry, on trial of partieipanta in
"Camp Grant Hsasacte," 161 et seq.
TOFPAN, COLONEL — Peace commiasioner to Indians, B.
TOWNSEND, JOHN — Haa corn atolen by Indians, 160; com-
manda snceesaful citizen expedition against Indians, 170
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TBAHEBN, WILLIAM -.Killed bv Indians 180
Tw^i^.H^™^*^-^'"'"* by Indi^nt^ 130.
TWADDLE, HABVBT-KUled by Indian, ISO.
S^SS 7~;— Murdered by Indiana, 127.
UPTON, LIEUT. FRANK -Witl. Capt. Barry on expedition U.
masaacre Apaches, 60. f j o.pouiHon w
VAN VLIET, CAPT. FREDERICK —Mention of 27»
VENABLE, THOMAS.— KiUed by Indians, 141.
WAKEFIELD, DR.- Killed by Indiana, 139.
WALLAPAIS— Heservation established for, S; outbreak ot
stopped by Captain Byrne, 9.
WAMSLEY, I. A.— Killed by Indians 130.
WANDEB, FEBDINAND— Wounded by Indians; kills self to
end aaffering, 133.
WARD, JOHN— Interpreter for Comr. Vincent Colyer, 218.
WARD, MILT— KiUg saspeeted participsnts in WiekenbarE
WABFIELD, SERGEANT- Recommended for oondnct on ex-
pedition against Indians, 115.
WABNEB, SOLOMON —Wounded by Indians, 130.
WATSON .—Killed by Indians 134
WEAVER, PAULINE —Son of killed by Indians, 128.
WEBEB, W. W.— Member of coroner's jury on Tictims of Wlck-
enbuTg Massacre, 294.
WELLS, LIEUTENANT —Scout of against Indians 24
WELSH, MATT— Attacked by Indians 131.
WHEATON, QENEBAL FRANK— In command of northern
military district of Arizona, 93.
WHEELER, LIEUT.— Names Meteoric Crater "FrankUn's
WHISLEB —.-Killed by Indians, 149.
WHISLEB, G. B.— Keeper at Bnrk's station killed by Mexican
outlaw, 208, 207.
WHITCOMB, J08IAH —Killed by Indians, 131.
WHITE, A. M,— Agent for Pima Indians, 4.
WHITE MOUNTAIN RESERVATION— Established in 1871, 16.
WHITE, REV. DAVID— Reports to Peace Commissioner Vin-
cent Colyer, 278, 279.
WHITMAN, LIEUT. BOTAL E.— Id command at Camp Grant,
166; af^ointed aa agent for certain Apache Indiana, 157;
influence frith Indiana, 163; receives Comr. Vincent Colyer,
230; secures data on Camp Qrant Massacre, 242.
WHITTING, JOHN— Killed by Indians, 128.
WHOOTEN, SERaEANT —Recommended for eondact on ex-
pedition against Indians, 116.
WICKENBURO MASSACRE— Mention of, 273;
289 et seq.
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WILBUB, DB. B. A.— Uention of, 230.
WILBUB, H. B.— IndUo agent at San Carlu reserratioa, IT.
WILCOX PHIL. P.— Indiaa tgent At San Carlot Tewrvation, 17.
WILLIAHB, DB.— lodiu agent at Camp Verde reaervation;
hounded into intane aaylnin, 10, 11.
WILLIAMSON, A. C— Indians attack ranch of, lU.
WILUS, JOHN — Uarderer taken from jail and lynched, 206.
WILSON, OEOBGE H. (TAOKEY).— Mention of, 310, 311.
W1BT8, DB^— Mention of, 120.
WOOD, MILES L.— Teetifiea in behalf of Indiana maMaered at
Camp Grant, 243.
WOODWOBTH .—Killed by Indians, 142.
WQOL8ET, KING 8.— Qivea account of Lieat. Meaeave'a acont
against Indians, 21 et seq.; haa Mexican boy in Us aerviee
killed b; Mexican outlaw, 204.
WOOSTEB, L. B.— Killed by Indians, 146; also wife of killed
by Indians, 164.
WEIGHTSON, W.— KUled by Indians, 136.
WTCKOFF, H.— Killad by Indiana, IX.
WTCKOFP .—KUled by Indians, 147.
TEBKBS . — Train attacked by Indiana, 141.
YNIQO . — Killed on ranch of Peter Kitchen by Indiana, 141.
TinOO, MANUEL- Has train atUeked by IncUans, liS.
TONKBB, EDWABD —KUled by Indians, 142.
TOUNQ .—Killed by Indians, 142.
TOUNO, COL. J. BOE — Indian agent at Sacaton, bounded into
insane aaylnm, 11.
TUMA8 — Beserration for, established, 4.
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